Bigass Volcano Eruption and Tsunami in Tonga

Discussion in 'The Mainboard' started by El_Pato, Jan 15, 2022.

  1. El_Pato

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  2. Emma

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    #2 Emma, Jan 15, 2022
    Last edited: Jan 15, 2022
  3. Handcuffed

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    another one of the shockwave. very crazy and i fear that the islands down there are going to be in trouble (and i think they were already struggling through covid with travel)

     
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  4. Bruce Wayne

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    Nature is scary
     
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    Jesus Christ
     
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  9. theregionsitter

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    Yea that’s freaky
     
  10. racer

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    Is the greased up flag bearer ok?
     
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  12. Jax Teller

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    That's a massive fucking eruption.
     
  13. TAS

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  14. Duck70

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    Posted on the Oregon private board:

    Tsunami warning on the Oregon Coast this morning from the Tonga volcano.

    My brother is at our house over there right now and says the waves are big and close to the shore. There is usually about 100 feet of rocks a tide pools here before the waves break

    Screen Shot 2022-01-15 at 10.16.47 AM.png
     
  15. AptosDuck

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    Aptos beaches got hit pretty hard
     
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  16. Pile Driving Miss Daisy

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    Jesus, I wonder how many decibels it would register if you were only 25 mi away.
     
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  17. El_Pato

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  18. AptosDuck

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    That's actually Capitola Village, not Santa Cruz

    I cross that bridge every weekday afternoon

    crazy
     
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  19. BudKilmer

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    Damn nature you scary
     
  20. Bankz

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  21. Bankz

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  22. Emma

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    [​IMG]



    This is data from air pressure monitorstations in Denmark (9942 miles away) [​IMG]

    The pressurewave took 13hrs to hit, which fits with speed of sound (754 miles/h)

    Philadelphia (7655 miles away)
    [​IMG]
     
  23. Toast

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  24. Doyle McPoyle

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    I didn't know rivers could do that
     
  25. Emma

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    Rabbit hole time

    By comparison, the Yellowstone eruption (620,000 years ago) is thousands+ times larger than the Tonga event. Better yet, the Lake Tabo eruption (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Toba) (74,000 years ago)
    is thousands+ times bigger than the Yellowstone eruption.

    The La Garita Caldera, located in Southwest Colorado, is also ranked as one of the largest and most powerful eruptions/explosions in history. It was about 5000 more times energetic than the most powerful human made explosion, the Tsars Bomb, yet 100 times less powerful than the mass extinction event that happened 66 million years ago.

    The area devastated by the La Garita eruption is thought to have covered a significant portion of what is now Colorado. The deposit, known as the Fish Canyon Tuff, covered at least 11,000 sq mi (28,000 km2). Its average thickness is 330 ft (100 m). The eruption might have formed a large-area ash-fall, but none has yet been identified.

    The scale of La Garita volcanism was the second greatest of the Cenozoic Era. The resulting Fish Canyon Tuff has a volume of approximately 1,200 cubic miles (5,000 km3), giving it a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating of 8.[6] By comparison, the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 was 0.25 cubic miles (1.0 km3) in volume.[7] By contrast, the most powerful human-made explosive device ever detonated, the Tsar Bomba, had a yield of 50 megatons, whereas the eruption at La Garita was about 5,000 times more energetic. However, because Tsar Bomba's reaction was complete within nanoseconds, while a volcanic explosion can take seconds or minutes, the power of the events is comparable if measured within the respective bounded timeframes.

    The Fish Canyon eruption was the second most energetic event to have occurred on Earth since the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. The asteroid impact responsible for that mass-extinction, equivalent to 240 teratons of TNT,[8] was approximately one hundred times more powerful than the Fish Canyon eruption.

    There's still two that are considered the largest in history, being Guarapuava—Tamarana—Sarusas and Santa Maria—Fria (each roughly 132 million years ago), though information is debated on both.

    Also, since the majority of the explosion and volcano resided underwater and because underwater shockwaves have proportionally larger peak overpressures than their air counterpart, any sea life in openwaters near the explosion is dead.
     
    #26 Emma, Jan 15, 2022
    Last edited: Jan 15, 2022
  26. Emma

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  27. WC

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    We’d better fire up the Jaeger program right fuckin now
     
    #28 WC, Jan 15, 2022
    Last edited: Jan 15, 2022
  28. Joe Withabee

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    Really like how many social media posts I've gotten over why care about vaxxed vs anti-vaxxed when a volcano erupted. Thanks, those 2 definitely relate.
     
  30. Bankz

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    are you following anyone on social media who’s following the sea life stuff? If so would you post a link. It never hit me what the destruction this had to those under the surface.
     
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  31. Corky Bucek

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    Woke up this am with a tsunami warning on my phone. I live a few hundred yards from a bay and didn’t notice anything, just thought it was low tide. Had a friend that said he went out to the ocean side and saw the water line retracting. I’m in the LBC and we have a break wall covering us because of our harbor, but I did see some tweets about damage on docks in other areas of CA. Likely damage was case of rising tide past the dock high posts (probably not the right term).
     
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  32. Georgia_Nole

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  33. Emma

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    In this satellite image taken by Himawari-8, a Japanese weather satellite, and released by the agency, shows an undersea volcano eruption at the Pacific nation of Tonga Saturday, Jan. 15, 2022. An undersea volcano erupted in spectacular fashion near the Pacific nation of Tonga on Saturday, sending large waves crashing across the shore and people rushing to higher ground.
    An undersea volcano erupted in spectacular fashion in the Kingdom of Tonga on January 15, 2022, as seen at right in this image taken by a Japanese weather satellite.
    PHOTOGRAPH BY JAPAN METEOROLOGY AGENCY VIA AP
    SCIENCEEXPLAINER
    The Tonga eruption explained, from tsunami warnings to sonic booms
    The volcanic plume generated record amounts of lightning before producing a blast heard thousands of miles away. Here’s what geologists say drove the event—and what may happen next.

    BYROBIN GEORGE ANDREWS
    PUBLISHED JANUARY 15, 2022
    12 MIN READ

    Just a few weeks ago, a submarine volcano identifiable by two small uninhabitable islands in the Kingdom of Tonga began to erupt. Its outburst initially seemed innocuous, with ashen plumes and moderate explosions that few people living outside the archipelago noticed.

    But in the past 24 hours, that volcano, named Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai, forced the world to sit up and pay attention.

    After a moment of calm earlier this month, its eruptive activity turned increasingly violent. The middle section of the island vanished on satellite imagery. Towering columns of ash began to produce record-breaking amounts of lightning.

    About this map


    “The thing just went gangbusters,” says Chris Vagasky, meteorologist and lightning applications manager at the Finland-based weather measurements company Vaisala. “We were starting to get 5,000 or 6,000 events per minute. That’s a hundred events per second. It’s unbelievable.”

    Then, early in the morning on January 15, the volcano produced a colossal explosion. The atmosphere was blasted out of the way as a shockwave emanated from the island, radiating outward at close to the speed of sound. The sonic boom was heard in parts of New Zealand more than 1,300 miles away, with the shockwave eventually traveling halfway around the world—as far as the United Kingdom, which is located a staggering 10,000 miles distant.

    To everyone’s horror, a tsunami quickly followed. It hit Tongatapu, the kingdom’s main island and home to the capital Nuku'alofa, just a few dozen miles to the south of the volcano. Communications were knocked out as the streets began to flood and people fled for their lives. Tsunami waves, albeit smaller ones, rushed across the vast ocean to parts of the Pacific Northwest, causing surges in Alaska, Oregon, Washington State, and British Columbia. Stations in California, Mexico, and parts of South America also registered minor tsunami waves.

    Recent research on the geologic history of the volcano suggests that this powerful paroxysm is, on human timescales, a relatively rare event: Such an explosion is thought to occur roughly once every thousand years. The hope is that the worst of the eruption is over. But even if that turns out to be the case, the damage has already been done.

    For Tonga, “this is a potentially devastating event, and it’s horrifying to watch,” says Janine Krippner, a volcanologist at the Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program. “I feel sick thinking about it.”

    Scientists and a rattled public are eager to know what caused such a powerful eruption, and what may happen next. But information has been slow to emerge partly because the volcano is somewhat remote and difficult to observe up close.

    “There are far more questions than answers at this point,” Krippner says. But here’s what scientists do know about the tectonic and geologic drivers involved, and what they might mean for the volcano’s future.

    A volcanic powerhouse in the Pacific
    Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai is located in region of the South Pacific that’s jam-packed with volcanoes—some above the waves, some far below—that have a penchant for violent eruptions. Past events have unleashed city-size rafts of pumice or seen volcanoes blowing themselves apart only to build new islands immediately afterward.


    4:43
    VOLCANOES 101

    About 1,500 active volcanoes can be found around the world. Learn about the major types of volcanoes, the geological process behind eruptions, and wh...Read More
    This profusion of volcanoes exists because of the Pacific plate’s continuous dive beneath the Australian tectonic plate. As the slab descends into the superhot rocks of the mantle, the water inside gets baked out and rises into the mantle above. Adding water to these rocks causes them to more readily melt. This creates a lot of magma that tends to be sticky and filled with gas—a potent recipe for explosive eruptions.

    Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai is no exception to this rule. The bits of land sit above a volcano more than 12 miles wide featuring a cauldron-like pit about three miles across, hidden from view by the sea. It’s been seen erupting with vim and vigor as far back as 1912, sometimes popping above the waves before being eroded away. The eruption of 2014-15 created a stable island that was soon home to colorful plants and barn owls.

    When Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai started erupting again on December 19, 2021, it produced a series of blasts and an ash column 10 miles high, but it was doing “nothing out of the ordinary” for a submarine volcano, says Sam Mitchell, a volcanologist at the University of Bristol in the U.K. For the next few weeks, enough fresh lava erupted to expand the island by nearly 50 percent. And as the new year dawned, the volcano appeared to be calming down.

    Then, in the last couple of days, things took a turn for the dramatic.

    The volcano’s menacing maelstrom
    As the volcano’s explosivity began to intensify, the amount of lightning emerging from its ashy plume began to eclipse not only that seen during this eruption, but during any eruption ever recorded.

    Volcanoes can produce lightning because ash particles in their plumes bump into each other or into bits of ice in the atmosphere, which generates an electrical charge. Positive charges get segregated from negative ones, sparking a flash of lightning. (Learn more about how volcanoes can trigger lightning.)

    From the outset, the Tonga eruption’s lightning was detected by Vaisala’s GLD360 network, which uses a global distribution of radio receivers that can “hear” the lightning as intense bursts of radio waves. During the first two weeks, the system recorded sometimes a few hundred or a few thousand flashes per day—nothing unusual. “It was clearing its throat, I guess,” says Vagasky.

    There was nowhere else that was that electric on the planet last night.
    CHRIS VAGASKYVAISALA METEOROLOGIST
    But by late Friday into early Saturday, the volcano was producing tens of thousands of discharges. At one point, this Tongan volcano managed 200,000 discharges in a single hour. By comparison, the 2018 eruption of Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau had 340,000 discharges over a week or so.

    “I couldn’t believe the numbers I was seeing,” says Vagasky. “You don’t usually see that with a volcano. This is something else. There was nowhere else that was that electric on the planet last night.”

    It may have looked spectacular from afar, but up close it would have seemed apocalyptic, a constant blaze of light soundtracked by endless thunder and volcanic bellows. Most of the lightning wasn’t isolated to the plume but also hit the ground and the ocean. “This was extremely dangerous for anybody that’s sitting on any of the other Tongan islands, because you’ve got all this lightning coming down around you,” says Vagasky.

    So why has this eruption produced what is likely to be a record-breaking number of discharges?

    The presence of water always ups the odds of lightning, says Kathleen McKee, a volcano acoustic researcher at the Los Alamos National Lab in New Mexico. When magma mingles with a shallow body of water, the trapped water is aggressively heated and vaporized, blasting that magma into millions of tiny pieces. The more plentiful and the finer the particles you have, the more lightning you generate.

    The heat of the eruption also readily transports water vapor into the colder, higher reaches of the atmosphere, where it becomes ice, says Corrado Cimarelli, an experimental volcanologist at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. That provides plenty of additional particles for the ash to collide with and generate electricity.

    But the reasons this eruption produced quite so much lightning are impossible to determine at present. “Unfortunately, the volcano is quite remote and there [are] few constraints on the atmospheric profiles in the vicinity of the plume,” Cimarelli says.

    The Hephaestion hammer falls
    The astounding amount of lightning wasn’t the only prelude to the volcano’s cataclysmic blast. By Saturday morning, satellite imagery had revealed the island was no longer building itself: The middle of the volcanic isle had vanished, likely thanks to the uptick in explosivity.

    When it eventually unleashed a giant explosion, the shockwave ricocheted across the globe at breakneck speeds. It was immediately followed by a tsunami that slammed into several islands in the Tongan archipelago before racing across the Pacific.

    Jackie Caplan-Auerbach, a seismologist and volcanologist at Western Washington University in Bellingham, says the blast involved a “mind-boggling amount of energy.” But there isn’t enough data right now to ascertain the precise cause of the tsunami.

    These events require displacing a lot of water, which can happen through underwater explosions, through a collapse event—when lots of rock suddenly falls off the volcano into the sea—or a combination of these and other factors.

    With the ash column obscuring the volcano, and much of the volcano submerged underwater, scientists will need time to gather more indirect data before drawing any conclusions. Clues could come from the types of acoustic waves the blast generated or perhaps the redistribution of mass around the volcano.

    “The jury is still out,” Caplan-Auerbach says, but the fact that such an intense explosion and potent tsunami came out of this single, relatively small volcanic isle “speaks to the incredible power of this eruption.” And although not the cause of the main tsunami, the shockwave itself triggered another big wave: The rapidly moving air impacting the ocean was powerful enough to force water to move out of the way, a phenomenon called a meteotsunami.

    Shane Cronin, a volcanologist at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, adds in a recent blog post that clues about why this event was so intense can be found in the volcano’s chemistry, which changes as the magmatic fuel within evolves over time.

    This volcano, like many others, must refill its magma reservoir after a major eruption. The last of those in the region happened back in the year 1100; ever since, molten rock has been accumulating at depth. As it becomes mostly full, small amounts of magma leak out of the volcano, which is likely behind the eruptions recorded since 2009.

    However, Cronin says, “once recharged, the large amount of magma crystallizing starts to drive gas pressures up, too quickly for it to be released by small eruptions.” Something’s got to give, and when that vast supply of magma finds an opening, it violently depressurizes and much of the molten reservoir is evacuated in one big blast.

    A foggy future in Tonga
    The Tongan archipelago may owe its very existence to the infernal forces that constructed its islands in the first place, but it’s clear the cost of living on them can be steep. Only 100,000 people live in the kingdom, with about a quarter residing in the capital, and they are now besieged by ashfall and tsunami waves.

    “The biggest unknown right now that really matters is we don’t know how the people in Tonga are,” Krippner says. This eruption, Mitchell adds, “could potentially be incredibly devastating to the country.”

    So now comes the question everyone wants answered: “Is this eruption over?” Krippner says. “We don’t know.”

    Such a terrifying outburst may represent the effective decapitation the volcano’s shallow magma reservoir and the speedy exsanguination of its molten contents, Mitchell says. This eruption will be extensively studied by volcanologists, which will only improve their understanding of future events and bolster efforts to mitigate their effects.

    But it’s too soon to know for sure how things will unfold in the wake of this eruption. So for now, all eyes remain firmly fixed on Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai.




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  34. Emma

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    Click the link to see fullsize
     
  35. OZ2

    OZ2 Well-Known Member

    I see we have a very similar interest in this.
     
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  36. OZ2

    OZ2 Well-Known Member

    The Krakatoa eruption was heard over 3,000 miles (if it happened in LA you would have heard it in NYC), a boat 40 miles away had the crews eardrums blown and a barometer 100 miles away spiked at 172 fucking decibels while the sound wave traveled around the globe 4 times.

    Can’t imagine what a sound-wave under water is like. Volcanoes fascinate me to no end.

    https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.mcall.com/news/local/mc-nws-krakatoa-anniversary-20190827-udxuiu2zmzf7xpubkmg6uju3pm-story.html?outputType=amp
     
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  37. Duck70

    Duck70 Let's just do it and be legends, man
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    This is a great series with a bunch of interesting plate tectonics stuff

     
  38. lomcevak

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    The pressure wave was detected all across the country too. Here in Rapid we had a slight increase in pressure around 630am followed by a rapid drop and then oscillations for a few minutes
     
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  39. Jake Barnes

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    Will almost certainly have an effect on weather patterns.

    Krakatoa raised the average temp of the entire Northern Hemisphere by a half-degree Celsius in the summer after its eruption and was a major contributing factor to record rainfall in Southern Cal.
     
  40. Cornelius Suttree

    Cornelius Suttree I am a landmine
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    I read it'll likely have a cooling effect?
     
  41. BudKilmer

    BudKilmer Well-Known Member
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    we sure need it if so :pray:
     
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  42. OZ2

    OZ2 Well-Known Member

    Krakatoa was also small compared to Mount Tambora in 1815 that led to year of no summer in United States and other countries.

    Eruption strength of VEI 7 which is only 1 below the highest levels put out by super volcanoes (although still MUCH smaller)
     
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  43. TC

    TC Epic, gangster ass post
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  44. OZ2

    OZ2 Well-Known Member

    Really sounds like this has to be the largest eruption since Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991 which could potentially, if it’s larger, be the biggest since Krakatoa.

    The article above stating it was like a 1 in 1,000 year eruption of the volcano is pretty nuts.
     
    #46 OZ2, Jan 16, 2022
    Last edited: Jan 16, 2022
  45. OZ2

    OZ2 Well-Known Member

  46. THF

    THF BITE THE NUTS, THUMB IN THE ASS!
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    Here is an explanation from The NY Times

    https://www.nytimes.com/live/2022/01/15/us/tsunami-california-tonga
     
  47. Upton^2

    Upton^2 blocked just a park away, but I can't really say
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    Maybe morbid question but what would’ve happened if an airplane was in the area? Would the shockwave reach that height?
     
  48. Bankz

    Bankz I'm a sick guy
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    Wouldn’t the Volcanic Ashe break the engines… my guess is big problems