Discussion in 'The Mainboard' started by THEHEBREW1, Dec 24, 2012.



    Whether you want it for yo PAGAN DAY or not, you heathens are gonna get it :beaver:
    BudKilmer likes this.
  2. Fidelio

    Fidelio black, blue and overcast with lightning

    i need to water my tree


    I'll see if I can arrange some high winds to lift the roof of your hovel and a sleet/rain combo takes care of it for you while swamping yo heathen ass out. My xmas gift to yo heathen ass :yousoright:
  4. Fidelio

    Fidelio black, blue and overcast with lightning

    just take the roof off. already raining in los angeles. can you believe that shit? happy xmas to all the yids in my neighborhood.
  5. Phil Connors

    Donor TMB OG
    Alabama Crimson Tide

  6. wtx

    wtx you don't want zero problems big fella
    Texas LonghornsTexas RangersWichita State Shockers

    List of cat breeds

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The following list of cat breeds includes domestic cat breeds and domestic/wild hybrids. The list includes established breeds recognized by various cat registries, new and experimental breeds, distinct domestic population not being actively developed and lapsed breeds.
    Inconsistency in breed classification among registries means that an individual animal may be considered different breeds by different registries. For example, The International Cat Association's Himalayan is considered a colorpoint version of the Persian by the Cat Fanciers' Association while the CFA's Javanese is considered a color variation of the Balinese by TICA.
    The domestic shorthair and domestic longhair are not breeds but terms used in cat fancy to describe cats that do not belong to a particular breed.


    [hide] ​


    Year discovered​
    Extra info​

    American Bobtail United States 1960 playful, friendly, energetic and extremely intelligent, Is the result of a cat body type genetic mutation affecting the tail development
    American Curl United States 1983 Uncommon breed Have almost straight ears, but showcats must have ears that curl in an arc between 90 and 180 degrees.
    American Longhair(Maine Coon) United States adaptable, friendly, and undemanding nature Polycystic kidney disease also present in the breed. Weight gain is sometimes a problem, so regular physical activity
    American Shorthair United States 1900´s was imported Are known for their gentle expressions Male American Shorthairs can weigh up to 15 pounds, while females can get up to 12 pounds at maturity. They are known for having long life spans, and can live to be 20 years old with good care.
    Abyssinian Ethiopia 1882 Is believed to have originated from one Egyptian female kitten named Zula The Abyssinian has alert, relatively large pointed ears
    Aegean cat Greece Natural/Standard Semi-long Bi- or tri-colored
    Australian Mist Australia Crossbreed Moderate Short Spotted and Classic tabby
    American Polydactyl United States Mutation Moderate Short/Long All
    American Wirehair United States Mutation Rex All but colorpoint
    Arabian Mau Arabian Peninsula Natural Short
    Asian (cat) Developed in the United Kingdom-Britain Short Evenly solid [​IMG]
    Asian Semi-longhair Great Britain Crossbreed Semi-long Solid [​IMG]
    Balinese United States Crossbreed Oriental Long Colorpoint [​IMG]
    Bambino United States Crossbreed Hairless/Furry down
    Bengal United States Hybrid Short Spotted/Marbled [​IMG]
    Birman Burma Natural Long Colorpoint [​IMG]
    Bombay United States Crossbred Moderate Short Solid [​IMG]
    Brazilian Shorthair Brazil Natural Short All [​IMG]
    British Shorthair United Kingdom Natural Cobby Short All [​IMG]
    British Longhair United Kingdom Cobby Long [​IMG]
    Burmese Burma and Thailand Natural Short Solid [​IMG]
    Burmilla United Kingdom Crossbreed Short/Long [​IMG]
    California Spangled Cat United States Crossbreed Short Spotted [​IMG]
    Chantilly/Tiffany United States
    Chartreux France Natural Cobby Short Solid [​IMG]
    Chausie France Hybrid Short Ticked [​IMG]
    Cheetoh United States Hybrid Crossbreed Short Spotted
    Colorpoint Shorthair Short [​IMG]
    Cornish Rex United Kingdom Mutation Rex All [​IMG]
    Cymric Isle of Man Natural/Mutation Long [​IMG]
    Cyprus Aphrodite Cyprus Natural Lean and muscular All All
    Devon Rex England Mutation Oriental Rex All [​IMG]
    Domestic shorthair cat Short All [​IMG]
    Donskoy or Don Sphynx Russia Hairless [​IMG]
    Dragon Li China Natural Short Striped tabby [​IMG]
    Dwelf Crossbreed Hairless
    Egyptian Mau Egypt Natural Short Spotted [​IMG]
    European Shorthair Sweden-Italy Natural Short [​IMG]
    Exotic Shorthair United States Crossbreed Cobby Short All [​IMG]
    German Rex East Germany Mutation Rex [​IMG]
    Havana Brown United Kingdom Short Solid [​IMG]
    Highlander (cat) America Crossbreed Moderate Short All
    Himalayan/Colorpoint Persian United Kingdom Crossbreed Cobby Long Colorpoint [​IMG]
    Japanese Bobtail Japan Natural Moderate Short/Long All but colorpoint and ticked [​IMG]
    Javanese Indonesia Crossbreed Oriental Long/Short Colorpoint [​IMG]
    Korat Thailand Natural Short Solid [​IMG]
    Kurilian Bobtail Russia Natural Semi-Cobby Short/Long [​IMG]
    LaPerm United States Mutation Moderate Rex All [​IMG]
    Maine Coon United States natural Long All but colorpoint and ticked [​IMG]
    Manx Isle of Man Natural/Mutation Short/Long All but colorpoint
    Mekong bobtail Russia Natural/Mutation Short Colorpoint
    Minskin United States Crossbreed Semi-Cobby Short/Hairless All
    Munchkin United States Mutation
    Nebelung United States Semi-long Solid
    Napoleon Long/short Varied
    Norwegian Forest Cat Norway Natural Long All but colorpoint
    Ocicat United States Crossbreed Short Spotted
    Ojos Azules United States
    Oregon Rex United States Mutation Rex
    Oriental Bicolor Oriental Bicolor
    Oriental Shorthair Oriental Short All but colorpoint
    Oriental Longhair Oriental Semi-long
    Persian Greater Iran Cobby Long All
    Peterbald Russia Crossbreed Stocky Hairless All
    Pixie-bob United States Natural Short Spotted
    Ragamuffin United States Crossbreed Cobby Long All
    Ragdoll United States Crossbreed Cobby Long Colorpoint/Mitted/Bicolor
    Russian Blue Russia Natural Short Solid
    Russian Black, White or Tabby Australia Crossbreed Short
    Savannah United States Hybrid Short Spotted
    Scottish Fold Scotland Natural/Mutation Cobby Short/Long All
    Selkirk Rex United States Mutation/Cross Rex (Short/Long) All
    Serengeti cat United States Hybrid Crossbreed Short Spotted
    Siamese Thailand Natural Oriental Short Colorpoint
    Siberian Russia Natural Semi-Cobby Semi-long All
    Singapura Indonesia Natural Short Ticked
    Snowshoe United States Crossbreed Short Colorpoint
    Sokoke Kenya Natural Short Classic tabby with ticking
    Somali United States Mutation Long Ticked
    Sphynx Canada/USA Mutation Stocky Hairless All
    Thai Thailand Natural Short Colorpoint
    Tonkinese Canada Crossbreed Short Colorpoint/Mink/Solid
    Toyger United States Crossbreed Moderate Short Mackerel
    Turkish Angora Turkey Natural Semi-long All but not colorpoint
    Turkish Van Turkey Natural Semi-long Va
    Ukrainian Levkoy Ukraine Hairless
    Ussuri Russia Natural Hybrid Short Spotted
    York Chocolate Cat United States
  7. FightingCock

    FightingCock Smoltzy, 2 dollar bourbon, Bluehose

    Thats a lot of cats
  8. miles

    miles All I know is my gut says, maybe


    Tigers are awesome

    CoastalOrange likes this.
  9. a.tramp

    a.tramp Insubordinate and churlish
    Kansas State WildcatsTexas Rangers

    good point WTX
  10. wtx

    wtx you don't want zero problems big fella
    Texas LonghornsTexas RangersWichita State Shockers

    List of kidney stone formers

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    (Redirected from Kidney stone formers)

    There are a number of documented cases of historical figures and distinguished members of society who were kidney stone formers. This condition is caused by nephrolithiasis, which are more commonly known as kidney stones, or urolithiasis, where the stone forms in the urinary system. These are crystal deposits that can accrete in the urinary system when certain chemical substances become concentrated in the urine.[1] Among the symptoms associated with nephrolithiasis are intense colicky pain, nausea, fever, chills, and the reduction or blockage of urine flow.[2] Historically, the condition of having a kidney or bladder stone was referred to as "the stone" or "the gravel".
    In certain cases, kidney stone formation played a pivotal role in history. Most notably, some members of the royalty and military leaders became debilitated at important moments, such as Napoleon III of France[3] during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and Athenian commander Nicias in the disastrous Sicilian Expedition of 415–3 BCE.[4] Despite this condition, artists such as Arthur Sullivan[5] and Michel de Montaigne[6] managed to produce historically distinguished works; providing an example of perseverance in the face of severe and chronic pain. The medical advances of the twentieth century have allowed patients to survive the condition, whereas in the past it may have proven debilitating or fatal (as shown by the examples below).[7]
    Kidney stones can reach exceptional size. In December 2003, a kidney stone weighing 356 g (12.5 oz) was removed from the right kidney of Peter Baulman of Australia. At its widest point, the stone measured 11.86 cm (4.66 in).[8] In 2009, a 1.1 kg (2.48 lb) stone spanning 17 cm was surgically removed from Sandor Sarkadi in Debrecen, Hungary.[9] As of August 2006, the most kidney stones ever passed naturally was 5,704 by Canadian Donald Winfield. The largest number removed through surgery was 728, during a three hour operation upon Mangilal Jain of India, on January 27, 2004.[10]


    [hide] ​

    Actors and media figures

    • In 1954, movie actress Ava Gardner was hospitalized in Madrid with kidney stones. In her torment, she apparently yelled curses that caused the Spanish nuns to blush.[11]
    • Hollywood talent agent Lew Wasserman was suffering from a kidney stone during the 1970s. As he was about to embark on an oceanic voyage, he insisted that it be surgically removed despite the risk and the reluctance of his doctor.[13]
    • During the shooting of the City Heat (1984), actor Burt Reynolds became debilitated from a kidney stone, and had to resort to medications to continue filming. He also suffered a broken jaw when struck by a metal chair and displayed inner ear problems.[15]
    • Commentator Bill O'Reilly dislikes doctors, and so for two years he avoided medical attention for a kidney stone. It was surgically removed in 2002 and he was back on the air within four hours.[16]
    • On October 19, 2005, while working on the set of Boston Legal, actor William Shatner was taken to the emergency room for lower back pain. He eventually passed a kidney stone, but recovered and soon returned to work. Shatner sold his kidney stone in 2006 for $75,000 to The money went to a housing charity, and a home was built for a family which had lost theirs in Hurricane Katrina.[17]
    • Buzz Kilman, Chicago radio personality, took leave from the Steve Dahl show while on-air (announcing, "I gotta go") in order to have his kidney stone treated.[19]
    Artists and musicians


    Arthur Sullivan wrote the comic operaH.M.S. Pinafore in between bouts of excruciating pain from his kidney stones.[5]
    • In 1549, Italian Renaissance painter Michelangelo was treated for kidney stones by anatomist Realdo Colombo. Michelangelo appears to have suffered for many years from recurrent uric acid stones and may have died from obstructive nephropathy. His condition may account for his artistic interest in kidneys.[24]
    • Five years after retiring because of ill-health, in 1612 Italian composer Giovanni Gabrieli died from an attack of kidney stones.[25]
    • Arthur Sullivan, of the musical partnership Gilbert and Sullivan, began to suffer from kidney stones in 1872. This would affect him for the remainder of his life, although he would continue to write while suffering from pain. He underwent surgery in 1874 in an attempt to treat the condition.[26]
    • Among his many medical maladies, in 1964 composer Cole Porter was hospitalized for the removal of kidney stones. He died two days later, most likely bronchopneumonia in his chest. He was also found to have chronic nephrosclerosis, or degeneration of the kidneys.[28]
    • Tony-award winning composer Charles Strouse became infected as a result of a kidney stone. He recovered after treatment with antibiotics and the removal of the stone.[30]
    • Chart singer Peter Andre was forced to postpone two shows at Plymouth Pavilions in 2010 because of a kidney stone.[31]

    • The post-mortem examination of noted diarist Samuel Pepys revealed, "a nest of no less than seven stones" in his left kidney. These weighed a total of 4.5 ounces. When he was younger, Pepys had undergone bladder surgery, pre-anesthesia, for removal of a large stone. He carried this stone with him to try to persuade fellow sufferers to endure the painful surgery.[35]


    Michel de Montaigne wrote of his condition that, "I am at grips with the worst of all maladies, the most sudden, the most painful, the most mortal and the most irremediable. I have already experienced five or six very long and painful bouts of it."[6]
    • Michel de Montaigne, the French Renaissance writer who popularized the essay, began to suffer from chronic kidney stones in 1578. His father had died from kidney stones.[6]
    • Mary Ann Evans wrote under the male pen name of George Eliot. She had suffered from various health problems for all of her life, and starting in February 1874 she endured a series of kidney stone attacks that lasted until her death.[36]
    • While visiting Italy, the author Llewelyn Powys began coughing up blood because of his tuberculosis and also suffered from a kidney stone. After he returned home to Dorset, he passed the stone with excruciating pain. He had to take medication for the remainder of his life to avoid forming another stone.[37]
    • American author Jack London used morphine to alleviate the pain of kidney stones. He most likely died at the age of forty from kidney failure and possibly a toxic dose of pain reliever.[38]
    • At the end of her life in 1980, author Ethel Wilson was hospitalized and suffering from recurrent small strokes. The day before she died, she was in physical distress from passing a kidney stone. A doctor injected her with medication to ease the pain.[39]
    • Author Isaac Asimov suffered from kidney stones, and wrote about how his pain was treated with morphine, saying that he feared becoming addicted to morphine if he ever needed it again.[40]During the 1980s, his problem with kidney stones developed into kidney disease, which resulted in multiple hospitalizations.[41]
    • During a book tour, best selling author David Sedaris started passing a kidney stone. He completed several lectures while on pain medication.[46]
    Nobility and emperors

    • James I of England suffered from several symptoms characteristic of kidney stones, including abdominal colic and passing red urine. Following his death in 1625, stones were found in his kidney.[49]
    • While he was alive, King Louis XIV of France frequently voided kidney stones but without suffering apparent pain. A small stone was found in the left kidney of his corpse.[50]
    • In 1722 the Russian ruler Peter the Great began to experience kidney problems. The symptoms grew worse during 1723 and by the following year it was diagnosed as the stone. He suffered from extreme pain in the loins and then tumors began to form on his thighs. Early in 1725 he died.[51]
    • Empress Anna of Russia was known to suffer from kidney stones, and in 1740 her condition became more acute. After becoming bedridden, she died later the same year. An autopsy showed that the stones resembled branching coral.[52]
    • After his death, English King George IV was found to have a bladder stone that had become encysted.[53] A year before his death he had complained of a pain in his bladder.[54]
    • With his health deteriorating, in 1860 Lord Cochrane twice underwent surgery for kidney stones. He died during the second operation.[55]
    • King Leopold I of Belgium underwent a lithotrity in 1862 for the removal of a kidney stone. However, the operation was only partly successful and he underwent a second surgery in 1863. For the latter operation, Sir Henry Thompson was appointed surgeon-extraordinary to the King.[56]
    • Māori Queen Dame Te Atairangikaahu was hospitalized for kidney surgery in 2005, a few weeks after the 40th anniversary of her coronation.[59]
    Politicians and military commanders

    • In the disastrous Sicilian Expedition (415–3 BCE), the Athenian commander Nicias was afflicted with kidney stones during the entire period he was in charge.[4]
    • The English military and political leader Oliver Cromwell may have suffered from kidney stones during the 1650s. His doctor said that, "being much troubled with the stone, he used sometimes to swill down several sorts of liquor, and then stir his body by some violent motion ... that by such agitation he might disburden his bladder."[60]


    The dangerous and painful surgery used to remove a stone through James K. Polk's perineum may have left him unable to conceive a child.[65]
    • The eleventh President of the United States, James K. Polk, suffered from kidney stones during his youth. At the age of seventeen he underwent a successful lithotomy without anaesthetic for removal of a urinary stone. Thereafter he was sufficiently well to be able to receive a formal education.[65]
    • Colonel Edward M. House was the foreign policy advisor to President Woodrow Wilson until removed from that post in 1919. In that year he suffered through a painful kidney stone, and he had recurrences in 1928 and 1930.[66]
    • In 1959, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi began to suffering from severe pain in the stomach and back. She was diagnosed with a kidney stone and underwent successful surgery in February 1960 to have it removed.[67]
    • Sukarno, the first President of Indonesia, suffered from recurrent kidney stones. He was twice forced to seek medical treatment in Vienna; the second time for removal of a kidney stone.[68]
    • U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson suffered from kidney stones at various times in his life. He was reluctant to seek treatment because of the effect it may have on his political image.[69]
    • Bosnian Serb military commander Ratko Mladić underwent surgery in Belgrade for a kidney stone in 1995, during the final year of the Serbian conflict with Bosnia.[71] He was later indicted by the UN War Crimes Tribunal for genocide and other crimes.[72]
    • Former White House Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove under U.S. President George W. Bush was hospitalized in September 2005 due to kidney stones.[77]
    Religious figures

    • Saint Ailred of Rievaulx took frequent baths and consumed wine to alleviate the severe pain from his kidney stones.[81]
    • The German monk Martin Luther periodically suffered from kidney stones, and he almost died in 1537 from being unable to urinate. During his lengthy journey home, the jostling motion of the carriage released the stone and so spared his life.[82]
    • Cardinal Mazarin, the successor to Cardinal Richelieu as the French King's Chief Minister, began to suffer from kidney stones in 1659. He died two years later while also suffering from gout and deteriorating health.[84]


    To treat his kidney stones, John Wilkins was fed, "four red-hot oystershells in a quart of cider and blistering withcantharides."[85]
    • After surviving the plague year of 1665, English clergyman, author and chief founder of the Royal Society John Wilkins became ill from kidney stones and he was unable to pass urine. He most likely died from the opiates or other medications that were used to treat his condition.[85]
    • Pope Innocent XI survived primitive surgery for the extraction of kidney stones.[86] After his death in 1689, he was found to have a "stone weighing nine ounces in the left kidney and another weighing six ounces in the right side."[87]
    • Mary Baker Eddy was the founder of Christian Science, a movement that discouraged its members from seeking help from doctors for their illnesses. In 1903 she began to suffer from extreme pain and consented to a visit by a doctor. After a diagnosis of kidney stones, she agreed to injections of morphine to alleviate the pain.[88]
    • In 1954, when Billy Graham was preparing to preach at Berlin's Olympic Stadium, he began to suffer pain from a kidney stone. Wondering whether the Devil might be mounting a vengeful attack against him,[89] he chose to continue the public service without painkillers, rather than appearing groggy or undergoing hospitalization.[90]
    • After praying to Mother Teresa, a 1⁄2-inch-diameter (13 mm) kidney stone disappeared from the lower ureter of Father V. M. Thomas in Guwahati, India. This occurred a day before the priest was scheduled to undergo surgery for the stone's removal. The surgeon said that, "the disappearance of the calculus (stone) was beyond medical explanation." This alleged miracle was used to support the case for sainthood of Mother Teresa.[91]
    Scholars, scientists and philosophers

    • In 271 or 270 BC, the Greek Philosopher Epicurus died from a stone blockage of his urinary tract lasting a fortnight, according to his successor Hermarchus and reported by his biographerDiogenes Laertius.[93]


    Thomas Sydenham began to suffer from kidney stones at the age of 25.[95]
    • In describing his kidney stones, the physician Thomas Sydenham said, "The pain is like that of a dislocation and yet parts feel as if cold water had been poured over them... Now it is a gnawing pain and now it is a pressure and tightening. So exquisite and lively meanwhile is the feeling of the part affected, that it cannot bear the weight of the bedclothes nor the jar of a person walking in the room."[95]
    • Robert Boyle, regarded as the first modern chemist, was troubled for much of his adult life by kidney stones.[96]
    • After retiring from the Lumleian lectureship at Cambridge University in 1655, the aging physician William Harvey was known to suffer from gout and kidney stones. He is noted for his correct description of blood and the circulatory system.[97]
    • In 1686, Danish anatomist and geologist Nicholas Steno became gravely ill from kidney stones. He suffered great pain and his stomach became distended. Shortly before he died, he prayed that, "My God I beg you not to take the pains from me, but to give me the patience to bear them."[98]
    • The distinguished mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz died from a combination of gout and the stone. Although he was a member of several distinguished societies, he had fallen into such disfavor that only one man came to his funeral.[101]
    • The eminent Italian anatomist and surgeon Antonio Scarpa suffered severely from a stone for several years. This caused a bladder inflammation which led to his demise in 1832.[103]
    Sports figures

    • Nearing the end of his life, in 1985 the father of competitive weightlifting, Bob Hoffman, suffered from a number of physical ailments, including kidney stones.[104]
    • New York Giants football coach Bill Parcells underwent medical treatment for a kidney stone in 1990. Against his doctor's advice, Bill Parcels attempted to coach the next game against the Minnesota Vikings, but a reporter noted he "appeared drawn and in pain".[105]
    • During a 1996 attempt to cross Antarctica, explorer and endurance record holder Sir Ranulph Fiennes was forced to turn back because of kidney stones. He lists it as his most painful experience.[106]
    • Professional golfer Davis Love III had to withdraw from the 2007 Wyndham Championship to undergo surgery for a kidney stone. Afterward he said that, "Except for feeling like I've been punched in the side, I feel fine."[109]
    • Bernhard Langer had to pull out of the 2007 Deutsche Bank Players' Championship to undergo an operation for kidney stone removal.[110]
    • In March 2009, driver Martin Truex, Jr. was hospitalized before the Atlanta’s Cup race with a kidney stone. Because of the NASCAR drug regulations, he decided to forgo medications while passing the stone so that he could compete in the race.[113]
    • During the 2009 National Hockey League playoffs, all-star right winger Mark Recchi underwent surgery to have a kidney stone removed. He said of the pain, "I don’t wish it on anybody.”[114]

    • Chicago White Sox manager Ozzie Guillen was hospitalized while passing a kidney stone in 2004. He said, "that was something I don't wish anybody has, even my worst enemy."[119]

    • The Soap Lady, a mysterious mummified female on exhibit at the Mütter Museum, may have suffered from a kidney stone or gallstone.[135]


    This illustration displays the stone that Jan de Doot claims he removed from his own bladder.​
    • Dutch blacksmith Jan de Doot is remembered for having his portrait painted with the "four ounce palpable stone" that he supposedly removed from his perineum using a kitchen knife in 1651.[136]
    • Between 2001 and 2006, 14 American astronauts developed kidney stones during space missions.[140] During long-duration space flights, astronauts are at higher risk for kidney stones because of an increase in the amount of calcium in their blood. This is caused by a loss of bone density in zero gravity.[141]

    Fictional incidents of kidney stones have been portrayed in the media on several occasions.
    • On an episode of Seinfeld, Cosmo Kramer (Michael Richards) suffers from a kidney stone. He eventually passes the stone at a carnival, but the pain induced by its passing causes him to scream so loudly that he interrupts the carnival and causes a tightrope walker to fall.[145]
    • In an episode of the TV comedy M*A*S*H, Maxwell Klinger suffers through and passes a kidney stone.[146]
    See also

  11. tee kay

    tee kay thanks for the f shack, <3 dirty mike & the boys

    Harvey Updyke Jr., Y84 and Colt 1911 like this.
  12. Y84

    Y84 Diablo and Dr. Pepper

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  13. a.tramp

    a.tramp Insubordinate and churlish
    Kansas State WildcatsTexas Rangers

    so very true


    GET READY HEATHENS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


  15. miles

    miles All I know is my gut says, maybe

    Heebs this thread is about kidney stones and cats try to stay on track
    Duck70 and batwing like this.
  16. a.tramp

    a.tramp Insubordinate and churlish
    Kansas State WildcatsTexas Rangers


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    (Redirected from Tornadoes)
    Jump to: navigation, search
    This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses, see Tornado (disambiguation).
    For the current tornado season, see Tornadoes of 2012.


    A tornado near Anadarko, Oklahoma. The funnel is the thin tube reaching from the cloud to the ground. The lower part of this tornado is surrounded by a translucent dust cloud, kicked up by the tornado's strong winds at the surface. The wind of the tornado has a much wider radius than the funnel itself.

    Part of the nature series​

    A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones,[1] although the word cyclone is used in meteorology, in a wider sense, to name any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are about 250 feet (76 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (483 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3.2 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).[2][3][4]
    Various types of tornadoes include the landspout, multiple vortex tornado, and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud. They are generally classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air frequently develop in tropical areas close to the equator, and are less common at high latitudes.[5] Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirls, and steam devil.
    Tornadoes have been observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes in the world occur in the so-called "Tornado Alley" region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America.[6] They also occasionally occur in south-central and eastern Asia, northern and east-central South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeast Europe, western and southeastern Australia, and New Zealand.[7] Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes, as well as by the efforts of storm spotters.
    There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes. The Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale. An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes.[8] Doppler radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (cycloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating.[9]



    The word tornado is an altered form of the Spanish word tronada, which means "thunderstorm". This in turn was taken from the Latin tonare, meaning "to thunder". It most likely reached its present form through a combination of the Spanish tronada and tornar ("to turn"); however, this may be a folk etymology.[10][11] A tornado is also commonly referred to as a "twister", and is also sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone.[12][13] The term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is also used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister.


    A tornado near Seymour, Texas
    A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud".[14] For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word; for example, there is disagreement as to whether separate touchdowns of the same funnel constitute separate tornadoes.[4] Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud.[15][16]
    Funnel cloud

    Main article: Funnel cloud


    This tornado has no funnel cloud; however, the rotating dust cloud indicates that strong winds are occurring at the surface, and thus it is a true tornado.
    A tornado is not necessarily visible; however, the intense low pressure caused by the high wind speeds (as described by Bernoulli's principle) and rapid rotation (due to cyclostrophic balance) usually causes water vapor in the air to condense into cloud droplets due to adiabatic cooling. This results in the formation of a visible funnel cloud or condensation funnel.[17]
    There is some disagreement over the definition of funnel cloud and condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, and thus most tornadoes are included under this definition.[18] Among many meteorologists, the funnel cloud term is strictly defined as a rotating cloud which is not associated with strong winds at the surface, and condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud.[4]
    Tornadoes often begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, and not all funnel clouds evolve into tornadoes. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.[4]
    Outbreaks and families

    Main articles: Tornado family, tornado outbreak, and tornado outbreak sequence
    Occasionally, a single storm will produce more than one tornado, either simultaneously or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[19] Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak (although the term "tornado outbreak" has various definitions). A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area (spawned by multiple weather systems) is a tornado outbreak sequence, occasionally called an extended tornado outbreak.[14][20][21]

    Size and shape


    A wedge tornado, nearly a mile wide. This tornado hit Binger, Oklahoma.
    Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards (meters) across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may be obscured completely by rain or dust. These tornadoes are especially dangerous, as even experienced meteorologists might not see them.[22] Tornadoes can appear in many shapes and sizes.
    Small, relatively weak landspouts may be visible only as a small swirl of dust on the ground. Although the condensation funnel may not extend all the way to the ground, if associated surface winds are greater than 40 mph (64 km/h), the circulation is considered a tornado.[15] A tornado with a nearly cylindrical profile and relative low height is sometimes referred to as a "stovepipe" tornado. Large single-vortex tornadoes can look like large wedges stuck into the ground, and so are known as "wedge tornadoes" or "wedges". The "stovepipe" classification is also used for this type of tornado, if it otherwise fits that profile. A wedge can be so wide that it appears to be a block of dark clouds, wider than the distance from the cloud base to the ground. Even experienced storm observers may not be able to tell the difference between a low-hanging cloud and a wedge tornado from a distance. Many, but not all major tornadoes are wedges.[23]


    A rope tornado in its dissipating stage, Tecumseh, Oklahoma.
    Tornadoes in the dissipating stage can resemble narrow tubes or ropes, and often curl or twist into complex shapes. These tornadoes are said to be "roping out", or becoming a "rope tornado". When they rope out, the length of their funnel increases, which forces the winds within the funnel to weaken due to conservation of angular momentum.[24] Multiple-vortex tornadoes can appear as a family of swirls circling a common center, or they may be completely obscured by condensation, dust, and debris, appearing to be a single funnel.[25]
    In the United States, tornadoes are around 500 feet (150 m) across on average and travel on the ground for 5 miles (8.0 km).[22] However, there is a wide range of tornado sizes. Weak tornadoes, or strong yet dissipating tornadoes, can be exceedingly narrow, sometimes only a few feet or couple meters across. One tornado was reported to have a damage path only 7 feet (2 m) long.[22] On the other end of the spectrum, wedge tornadoes can have a damage path a mile (1.6 km) wide or more. A tornado that affected Hallam, Nebraska on May 22, 2004, was up to 2.5 miles (4.0 km) wide at the ground.[3]
    In terms of path length, the Tri-State Tornado, which affected parts of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925, was on the ground continuously for 219 miles (352 km). Many tornadoes which appear to have path lengths of 100 miles (160 km) or longer are composed of a family of tornadoes which have formed in quick succession; however, there is no substantial evidence that this occurred in the case of the Tri-State Tornado.[20] In fact, modern reanalysis of the path suggests that the tornado may have begun 15 miles (24 km) further west than previously thought.[26]

    Tornadoes can have a wide range of colors, depending on the environment in which they form. Those that form in dry environments can be nearly invisible, marked only by swirling debris at the base of the funnel. Condensation funnels that pick up little or no debris can be gray to white. While traveling over a body of water (as a waterspout), tornadoes can turn very white or even blue. Slow-moving funnels, which ingest a considerable amount of debris and dirt, are usually darker, taking on the color of debris. Tornadoes in the Great Plains can turn red because of the reddish tint of the soil, and tornadoes in mountainous areas can travel over snow-covered ground, turning white.[22]


    Photographs of the Waurika, Oklahoma tornado of May 30, 1976, taken at nearly the same time by two photographers. In the top picture, the tornado is lit with the sunlight focused from behind the camera, thus the funnel appears bluish. In the lower image, where the camera is facing the opposite direction, the sun is behind the tornado, giving it a dark appearance.[27]
    Lighting conditions are a major factor in the appearance of a tornado. A tornado which is "back-lit" (viewed with the sun behind it) appears very dark. The same tornado, viewed with the sun at the observer's back, may appear gray or brilliant white. Tornadoes which occur near the time of sunset can be many different colors, appearing in hues of yellow, orange, and pink.[12][28]
    Dust kicked up by the winds of the parent thunderstorm, heavy rain and hail, and the darkness of night are all factors which can reduce the visibility of tornadoes. Tornadoes occurring in these conditions are especially dangerous, since only weather radar observations, or possibly the sound of an approaching tornado, serve as any warning to those in the storm's path. Most significant tornadoes form under the storm's updraft base, which is rain-free,[29] making them visible.[30] Also, most tornadoes occur in the late afternoon, when the bright sun can penetrate even the thickest clouds.[20] Night-time tornadoes are often illuminated by frequent lightning.
    There is mounting evidence, including Doppler On Wheels mobile radar images and eyewitness accounts, that most tornadoes have a clear, calm center with extremely low pressure, akin to the eye of tropical cyclones. This area would be clear (possibly full of dust), have relatively light winds, and be very dark, since the light would be blocked[citation needed] by swirling debris on the outside of the tornado. Lightning is said to be the source of illumination for those who claim to have seen the interior of a tornado.[31][32][33]

    Tornadoes normally rotate cyclonically (when viewed from above, this is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern). While large-scale storms always rotate cyclonically due to the Coriolis effect, thunderstorms and tornadoes are so small that the direct influence of the Coriolis effect is unimportant, as indicated by their large Rossby numbers. Supercells and tornadoes rotate cyclonically in numerical simulations even when the Coriolis effect is neglected.[34][35] Low-level mesocyclones and tornadoes owe their rotation to complex processes within the supercell and ambient environment.[36]
    Approximately 1 percent of tornadoes rotate in an anticyclonic direction in the northern hemisphere. Typically, systems as weak as landspouts and gustnadoes can rotate anticyclonically, and usually only those which form on the anticyclonic shear side of the descending rear flank downdraft in a cyclonic supercell.[37] On rare occasions, anticyclonic tornadoes form in association with the mesoanticyclone of an anticyclonic supercell, in the same manner as the typical cyclonic tornado, or as a companion tornado either as a satellite tornado or associated with anticyclonic eddies within a supercell.[38]
    Sound and seismology

    Tornadoes emit widely on the acoustics spectrum and the sounds are caused by multiple mechanisms. Various sounds of tornadoes have been reported, mostly related to familiar sounds for the witness and generally some variation of a whooshing roar. Popularly reported sounds include a freight train, rushing rapids or waterfall, a nearby jet engine, or combinations of these. Many tornadoes are not audible from much distance; the nature and propagation distance of the audible sound depends on atmospheric conditions and topography.
    The winds of the tornado vortex and of constituent turbulent eddies, as well as airflow interaction with the surface and debris, contribute to the sounds. Funnel clouds also produce sounds. Funnel clouds and small tornadoes are reported as whistling, whining, humming, or the buzzing of innumerable bees or electricity, or more or less harmonic, whereas many tornadoes are reported as a continuous, deep rumbling, or an irregular sound of "noise".[39]
    Since many tornadoes are audible only when very near, sound is not reliable warning of a tornado. Tornadoes are also not the only source of such sounds in severe thunderstorms; any strong, damaging wind, a severe hail volley, or continuous thunder in a thunderstorm may produce a roaring sound.[40]


    An illustration of generation of infrasound in tornadoes by the Earth System Research Laboratory's Infrasound Program
    Tornadoes also produce identifiable inaudible infrasonic signatures.[41]
    Unlike audible signatures, tornadic signatures have been isolated; due to the long distance propagation of low-frequency sound, efforts are ongoing to develop tornado prediction and detection devices with additional value in understanding tornado morphology, dynamics, and creation.[42] Tornadoes also produce a detectable seismic signature, and research continues on isolating it and understanding the process.[43]
    Electromagnetic, lightning, and other effects

    Tornadoes emit on the electromagnetic spectrum, with sferics and E-field effects detected.[42][44][45] There are observed correlations between tornadoes and patterns of lightning. Tornadic storms do not contain more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never produce lightning. More often than not, overall cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity decreases as a tornado reaches the surface and returns to the baseline level when the tornado lifts. In many cases, intense tornadoes and thunderstorms exhibit an increased and anomalous dominance of positive polarity CG discharges.[46] Electromagnetics and lightning have little or nothing to do directly with what drives tornadoes (tornadoes are basically a thermodynamic phenomenon), although there are likely connections with the storm and environment affecting both phenomena.
    Luminosity has been reported in the past and is probably due to misidentification of external light sources such as lightning, city lights, and power flashes from broken lines, as internal sources are now uncommonly reported and are not known to ever have been recorded. In addition to winds, tornadoes also exhibit changes in atmospheric variables such as temperature, moisture, and pressure. For example, on June 24, 2003 near Manchester, South Dakota, a probe measured a 100 mbar (hPa) (2.95 inHg) pressure decrease. The pressure dropped gradually as the vortex approached then dropped extremely rapidly to 850 mbar (hPa) (25.10 inHg) in the core of the violent tornado before rising rapidly as the vortex moved away, resulting in a V-shape pressure trace. Temperature tends to decrease and moisture content to increase in the immediate vicinity of a tornado.[47]
    Life cycle


    A sequence of images showing the birth of a tornado. First, the rotating cloud base lowers. This lowering becomes a funnel, which continues descending while winds build near the surface, kicking up dust and other debris. Finally, the visible funnel extends to the ground, and the tornado begins causing major damage. This tornado, near Dimmitt, Texas, was one of the best-observed violent tornadoes in history.
    Further information: Tornadogenesis
    Supercell relationship

    See also: Supercell
    Tornadoes often develop from a class of thunderstorms known as supercells. Supercells contain mesocyclones, an area of organized rotation a few miles up in the atmosphere, usually 1–6 miles (2–10 km) across. Most intense tornadoes (EF3 to EF5 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale) develop from supercells. In addition to tornadoes, very heavy rain, frequent lightning, strong wind gusts, and hail are common in such storms.
    Most tornadoes from supercells follow a recognizable life cycle. That begins when increasing rainfall drags with it an area of quickly descending air known as the rear flank downdraft (RFD). This downdraft accelerates as it approaches the ground, and drags the supercell's rotating mesocyclone towards the ground with it.[15]

    As the mesocyclone lowers below the cloud base, it begins to take in cool, moist air from the downdraft region of the storm. This convergence of warm air in the updraft, and this cool air, causes a rotating wall cloud to form. The RFD also focuses the mesocyclone's base, causing it to siphon air from a smaller and smaller area on the ground. As the updraft intensifies, it creates an area of low pressure at the surface. This pulls the focused mesocyclone down, in the form of a visible condensation funnel. As the funnel descends, the RFD also reaches the ground, creating a gust front that can cause severe damage a good distance from the tornado. Usually, the funnel cloud begins causing damage on the ground (becoming a tornado) within a few minutes of the RFD reaching the ground.[15]

    Initially, the tornado has a good source of warm, moist inflow to power it, so it grows until it reaches the "mature stage". This can last anywhere from a few minutes to more than an hour, and during that time a tornado often causes the most damage, and in rare cases can be more than one mile (1.6 km) across. Meanwhile, the RFD, now an area of cool surface winds, begins to wrap around the tornado, cutting off the inflow of warm air which feeds the tornado.[15]

    As the RFD completely wraps around and chokes off the tornado's air supply, the vortex begins to weaken, and become thin and rope-like. This is the "dissipating stage"; often lasting no more than a few minutes, after which the tornado fizzles. During this stage the shape of the tornado becomes highly influenced by the winds of the parent storm, and can be blown into fantastic patterns.[20][27][28] Even though the tornado is dissipating, it is still capable of causing damage. The storm is contracting into a rope-like tube and, like the ice skater who pulls her arms in to spin faster, winds can increase at this point.[24]
    As the tornado enters the dissipating stage, its associated mesocyclone often weakens as well, as the rear flank downdraft cuts off the inflow powering it. In particular, intense supercells tornadoes can develop cyclically. As the first mesocyclone and associated tornado dissipate, the storm's inflow may be concentrated into a new area closer to the center of the storm. If a new mesocyclone develops, the cycle may start again, producing one or more new tornadoes. Occasionally, the old (occluded) mesocyclone and the new mesocyclone produce a tornado at the same time.
    Although this is a widely accepted theory for how most tornadoes form, live, and die, it does not explain the formation of smaller tornadoes, such as landspouts, long-lived tornadoes, or tornadoes with multiple vortices. These each have different mechanisms which influence their development—however, most tornadoes follow a pattern similar to this one.[48]

    Multiple vortex

    Main article: multiple vortex tornado


    A multiple-vortex tornado outside Dallas, Texas on April 2, 1957.
    A multiple-vortex tornado is a type of tornado in which two or more columns of spinning air rotate around a common center. Multivortex structure can occur in almost any circulation, but is very often observed in intense tornadoes. These vortices often create small areas of heavier damage along the main tornado path.[4][15] This is a distinct phenomenon from a satellite tornado, which is a weaker tornado which forms very near a large, strong tornado contained within the same mesocyclone. The satellite tornado may appear to "orbit" the larger tornado (hence the name), giving the appearance of one, large multi-vortex tornado. However, a satellite tornado is a distinct circulation, and is much smaller than the main funnel.[4]

    Main article: waterspout


    A waterspout near the Florida Keys in 1969.
    A waterspout is defined by the National Weather Service as a tornado over water. However, researchers typically distinguish "fair weather" waterspouts from tornadic waterspouts. Fair weather waterspouts are less severe but far more common, and are similar to dust devils and landspouts. They form at the bases of cumulus congestus clouds over tropical and subtropical waters. They have relatively weak winds, smooth laminar walls, and typically travel very slowly. They occur most commonly in the Florida Keys and in the northern Adriatic Sea.[49][50][51] In contrast, tornadic waterspouts are stronger tornadoes over water. They form over water similarly to mesocyclonic tornadoes, or are stronger tornadoes which cross over water. Since they form from severe thunderstorms and can be far more intense, faster, and longer-lived than fair weather waterspouts, they are more dangerous.[52] In official tornado statistics, waterspouts are generally not counted unless they impact land, though some European weather agencies count waterspouts and tornadoes together.[4][53]

    Main article: landspout
    A landspout, or dust-tube tornado, is a tornado not associated with a mesocyclone. The name stems from their characterization as a "fair weather waterspout on land". Waterspouts and landspouts share many defining characteristics, including relative weakness, short lifespan, and a small, smooth condensation funnel which often does not reach the surface. Landspouts also create a distinctively laminar cloud of dust when they make contact with the ground, due to their differing mechanics from true mesoform tornadoes. Though usually weaker than classic tornadoes, they can produce strong winds which could cause serious damage.[4][15]
    Similar circulations


    Main article: gustnado


    A dust devil in Arizona
    A gustnado, or gust front tornado, is a small, vertical swirl associated with a gust front or downburst. Because they are not connected with a cloud base, there is some debate as to whether or not gustnadoes are tornadoes. They are formed when fast moving cold, dry outflow air from a thunderstorm is blown through a mass of stationary, warm, moist air near the outflow boundary, resulting in a "rolling" effect (often exemplified through a roll cloud). If low level wind shear is strong enough, the rotation can be turned vertically or diagonally and make contact with the ground. The result is a gustnado.[4][54] They usually cause small areas of heavier rotational wind damage among areas of straight-line wind damage.
    Dust devil

    Main article: dust devil
    A dust devil resembles a tornado in that it is a vertical swirling column of air. However, they form under clear skies and are no stronger than the weakest tornadoes. They form when a strong convective updraft is formed near the ground on a hot day. If there is enough low level wind shear, the column of hot, rising air can develop a small cyclonic motion that can be seen near the ground. They are not considered tornadoes because they form during fair weather and are not associated with any clouds. However, they can, on occasion, result in major damage in arid areas.[22][55]
    Fire whirls and steam devils

    Main articles: fire whirl and steam devil
    Small-scale, tornado-like circulations can occur near any intense surface heat source. Those that occur near intense wildfires are called fire whirls. They are not considered tornadoes, except in the rare case where they connect to a pyrocumulus or other cumuliform cloud above. Fire whirls usually are not as strong as tornadoes associated with thunderstorms. They can, however, produce significant damage.[20] A steam devil is a rotating updraft that involves steam or smoke. Steam devils are very rare. They most often form from smoke issuing from a power plant smokestack. Hot springs and deserts may also be suitable locations for a steam devil to form. The phenomenon can occur over water, when cold arctic air passes over relatively warm water.[22]
    Intensity and damage

    Main article: Tornado intensity and damage
    See also: Enhanced Fujita scale, Fujita scale, and TORRO scale


    An example of EF1 damage. Here, the roof has been substantially damaged, and the garage door blown outwards, but the walls and supporting structures are still intact.
    The Fujita scale and the Enhanced Fujita Scale rate tornadoes by damage caused. The Enhanced Fujita (EF) Scale was an upgrade to the older Fujita scale, by expert elicitation, using engineered wind estimates and better damage descriptions. The EF Scale was designed so that a tornado rated on the Fujita scale would receive the same numerical rating, and was implemented starting in the United States in 2007. An EF0 tornado will probably damage trees but not substantial structures, whereas an EF5 tornado can rip buildings off their foundations leaving them bare and even deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler weather radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (cycloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and award a rating.[4][56][57] Tornadoes vary in intensity regardless of shape, size, and location, though strong tornadoes are typically larger than weak tornadoes. The association with track length and duration also varies, although longer track tornadoes tend to be stronger.[58] In the case of violent tornadoes, only a small portion of the path is of violent intensity, most of the higher intensity from subvortices.[20]
    In the United States, 80% of tornadoes are EF0 and EF1 (T0 through T3) tornadoes. The rate of occurrence drops off quickly with increasing strength—less than 1% are violent tornadoes (EF4, T8 or stronger).[59] Outside Tornado Alley, and North America in general, violent tornadoes are extremely rare. This is apparently mostly due to the lesser number of tornadoes overall, as research shows that tornado intensity distributions are fairly similar worldwide. A few significant tornadoes occur annually in Europe, Asia, southern Africa, and southeastern South America, respectively.[60]

    Main article: Tornado climatology


    Areas worldwide where tornadoes are most likely, indicated by orange shading
    The United States has the most tornadoes of any country, nearly four times more than estimated in all of Europe, excluding waterspouts.[61] This is mostly due to the unique geography of the continent. North America is a large continent that extends from the tropics north into arctic areas, and has no major east-west mountain range to block air flow between these two areas. In the middle latitudes, where most tornadoes of the world occur, the Rocky Mountains block moisture and buckle the atmospheric flow, forcing drier air at mid-levels of the troposphere due to downsloped winds, and causing the formation of a low pressure area downwind to the east of the mountains. Increased westerly flow off the Rockies force the formation of a dry line when the flow aloft is strong,[62] while the Gulf of Mexico fuels abundant low-level moisture in the southerly flow to its east. This unique topography allows for frequent collisions of warm and cold air, the conditions that breed strong, long-lived storms throughout the year. A large portion of these tornadoes form in an area of the central United States known as Tornado Alley.[6] This area extends into Canada, particularly Ontario and the Prairie Provinces, although southeast Quebec, the interior of British Columbia, and western New Brunswick are also tornado-prone.[63] Tornadoes also occur across northeastern Mexico.[4]
    The United States averages about 1,200 tornadoes per year. The Netherlands has the highest average number of recorded tornadoes per area of any country (more than 20, or 0.0013 per sq mi (0.00048 per km2), annually), followed by the UK (around 33, or 0.00035 per sq mi (0.00013 per km2), per year),[64][65] but most are small and cause minor damage. In absolute number of events, ignoring area, the UK experiences more tornadoes than any other European country, excluding waterspouts.[61]


    Intense tornado activity in the United States. The darker-colored areas denote the area commonly referred to as Tornado Alley.
    Tornadoes kill an average of 179 people per year in Bangladesh, the most in the world.[citation needed] This is due to high population density, poor quality of construction and lack of tornado safety knowledge, as well as other factors.[66][67] Other areas of the world that have frequent tornadoes include South Africa, parts of Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil, as well as portions of Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and far eastern Asia.[7][68]
    Tornadoes are most common in spring and least common in winter, but tornadoes can occur any time of year that favorable conditions occur.[20] Spring and fall experience peaks of activity as those are the seasons when stronger winds, wind shear, and atmospheric instability are present.[69] Tornadoes are focused in the right front quadrant of landfalling tropical cyclones, which tend to occur in the late summer and autumn. Tornadoes can also be spawned as a result of eyewall mesovortices, which persist until landfall.[70]
    Tornado occurrence is highly dependent on the time of day, because of solar heating.[71] Worldwide, most tornadoes occur in the late afternoon, between 3 pm and 7 pm local time, with a peak near 5 pm.[72][73][74][75][76] Destructive tornadoes can occur at any time of day. The Gainesville Tornado of 1936, one of the deadliest tornadoes in history, occurred at 8:30 am local time.[20]
    Associations with climate and climate change


    U. S. Annual January - December Tornado Count 1976-2011 from NOAA National Climatic Data Center
    Associations to various climate and environmental trends exist. For example, an increase in the sea surface temperature of a source region (e.g. Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea) increases atmospheric moisture content. Increased moisture can fuel an increase in severe weather and tornado activity, particularly in the cool season.[77]
    Some evidence does suggest that the Southern Oscillation is weakly correlated with changes in tornado activity, which vary by season and region, as well as whether the ENSO phase is that of El Niño or La Niña.[78]
    Climatic shifts may affect tornadoes via teleconnections in shifting the jet stream and the larger weather patterns. The climate-tornado link is confounded by the forces affecting larger patterns and by the local, nuanced nature of tornadoes. Although it is reasonable that global warming may affect trends in tornado activity,[79] any such effect is not yet identifiable due to the complexity, local nature of the storms, and database quality issues. Any effect would vary by region.[80]


    Path of a tornado across Wisconsin on August 21, 1857
    Main article: Convective storm detection
    Rigorous attempts to warn of tornadoes began in the United States in the mid-20th century. Before the 1950s, the only method of detecting a tornado was by someone seeing it on the ground. Often, news of a tornado would reach a local weather office after the storm. However, with the advent of weather radar, areas near a local office could get advance warning of severe weather. The first public tornado warnings were issued in 1950 and the first tornado watches and convective outlooks in 1952. In 1953 it was confirmed that hook echoes are associated with tornadoes.[81] By recognizing these radar signatures, meteorologists could detect thunderstorms probably producing tornadoes from dozens of miles away.[82]

    See also: Pulse-Doppler radar and weather radar
    Today, most developed countries have a network of weather radars, which remains the main method of detecting signatures probably associated with tornadoes. In the United States and a few other countries, Doppler weather radar stations are used. These devices measure the velocity and radial direction (towards or away from the radar) of the winds in a storm, and so can spot evidence of rotation in storms from more than a hundred miles (160 km) away. When storms are distant from a radar, only areas high within the storm are observed and the important areas below are not sampled.[83] Data resolution also decreases with distance from the radar. Some meteorological situations leading to tornadogenesis are not readily detectable by radar and on occasion tornado development may occur more quickly than radar can complete a scan and send the batch of data. Also, most populated areas on Earth are now visible from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), which aid in the nowcasting of tornadic storms.[84]


    A Doppler on Wheels radar loop of a hook echo and associated mesocyclone in Goshen County, Wyoming on June 5, 2009. Strong mesocyclones show up as adjacent areas of yellow and blue (on other radars, bright red and bright green), and usually indicate an imminent or occurring tornado.
    Storm spotting

    In the mid-1970s, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) increased its efforts to train storm spotters to spot key features of storms which indicate severe hail, damaging winds, and tornadoes, as well as damage itself and flash flooding. The program was called Skywarn, and the spotters were local sheriff's deputies, state troopers, firefighters, ambulance drivers, amateur radio operators, civil defense (now emergency management) spotters, storm chasers, and ordinary citizens. When severe weather is anticipated, local weather service offices request that these spotters look out for severe weather, and report any tornadoes immediately, so that the office can warn of the hazard.
    Usually spotters are trained by the NWS on behalf of their respective organizations, and report to them. The organizations activate public warning systems such as sirens and the Emergency Alert System, and forward the report to the NWS.[85] There are more than 230,000 trained Skywarn weather spotters across the United States.[86]
    In Canada, a similar network of volunteer weather watchers, called Canwarn, helps spot severe weather, with more than 1,000 volunteers.[84] In Europe, several nations are organizing spotter networks under the auspices of Skywarn Europe[87] and the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO) has maintained a network of spotters in the United Kingdom since 1974.[88]
    Storm spotters are needed because radar systems such as NEXRAD do not detect a tornado; merely signatures which hint at the presence of tornadoes.[89] Radar may give a warning before there is any visual evidence of a tornado or imminent tornado, but ground truth from an observer can either verify the threat or determine that a tornado is not imminent.[90] The spotter's ability to see what radar cannot is especially important as distance from the radar site increases, because the radar beam becomes progressively higher in altitude further away from the radar, chiefly due to curvature of Earth, and the beam also spreads out.[83]
    Visual evidence


    A rotating wall cloud with rear flank downdraft clear slot evident to its left rear
    Storm spotters are trained to discern whether a storm seen from a distance is a supercell. They typically look to its rear, the main region of updraft and inflow. Under the updraft is a rain-free base, and the next step of tornadogenesis is the formation of a rotating wall cloud. The vast majority of intense tornadoes occur with a wall cloud on the backside of a supercell.[59]
    Evidence of a supercell comes from the storm's shape and structure, and cloud tower features such as a hard and vigorous updraft tower, a persistent, large overshooting top, a hard anvil (especially when backsheared against strong upper level winds), and a corkscrew look or striations. Under the storm and closer to where most tornadoes are found, evidence of a supercell and likelihood of a tornado includes inflow bands (particularly when curved) such as a "beaver tail", and other clues such as strength of inflow, warmth and moistness of inflow air, how outflow- or inflow-dominant a storm appears, and how far is the front flank precipitation core from the wall cloud. Tornadogenesis is most likely at the interface of the updraft and rear flank downdraft, and requires a balance between the outflow and inflow.[15]
    Only wall clouds that rotate spawn tornadoes, and usually precede the tornado by five to thirty minutes. Rotating wall clouds are the visual manifestation of a mesocyclone. Barring a low-level boundary, tornadogenesis is highly unlikely unless a rear flank downdraft occurs, which is usually visibly evidenced by evaporation of cloud adjacent to a corner of a wall cloud. A tornado often occurs as this happens or shortly after; first, a funnel cloud dips and in nearly all cases by the time it reaches halfway down, a surface swirl has already developed, signifying a tornado is on the ground before condensation connects the surface circulation to the storm. Tornadoes may also occur without wall clouds, under flanking lines, and on the leading edge. Spotters watch all areas of a storm, and the cloud base and surface.[91]

    Main article: Tornado records


    A map of the tornado paths in the Super Outbreak (April 3–4, 1974)
    The most record-breaking tornado in recorded history was the Tri-State Tornado, which roared through parts of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925. It was likely an F5, though tornadoes were not ranked on any scale in that era. It holds records for longest path length (219 miles, 352 km), longest duration (about 3.5 hours), and fastest forward speed for a significant tornado (73 mph, 117 km/h) anywhere on Earth. In addition, it is the deadliest single tornado in United States history (695 dead).[20] The tornado was also the second costliest tornado in history at the time, but in the years since has been surpassed by several others if population changes over time are not considered. When costs are normalized for wealth and inflation, it ranks third today.[92]
    The deadliest tornado in world history was the Daultipur-Salturia Tornado in Bangladesh on April 26, 1989, which killed approximately 1300 people.[66] Bangladesh has had at least 19 tornadoes in its history kill more than 100 people, almost half of the total in the rest of the world.
    The most extensive tornado outbreak on record was the Super Outbreak, which affected a large area of the central United States and extreme southern Ontario in Canada on April 3 and 4, 1974. This outbreak, which saw 148 tornadoes develop in 18 hours, included six of F5 intensity and twenty-four that peaked at F4 strength. Sixteen tornadoes were on the ground at the same time during its peak. More than 300 people, possibly as many as 330, were killed by tornadoes during this outbreak.[93]
    While direct measurement of the most violent tornado wind speeds is nearly impossible, since conventional anemometers would be destroyed by the intense winds, some tornadoes have been scanned by mobile Doppler radar units, which can provide a good estimate of the tornado's winds. The highest wind speed ever measured in a tornado, which is also the highest wind speed ever recorded on the planet, is 301 ± 20 mph (484 ± 32 km/h) in the F5 Bridge Creek-Moore, Oklahoma, tornado which killed 36 people.[94] Though the reading was taken about 100 feet (30 m) above the ground, this is a testament to the power of the strongest tornadoes.[2]
    Storms that produce tornadoes can feature intense updrafts, sometimes exceeding 150 mph (240 km/h). Debris from a tornado can be lofted into the parent storm and carried a very long distance. A tornado which affected Great Bend, Kansas, in November 1915, was an extreme case, where a "rain of debris" occurred 80 miles (130 km) from the town, a sack of flour was found 110 miles (180 km) away, and a cancelled check from the Great Bend bank was found in a field outside of Palmyra, Nebraska, 305 miles (491 km) to the northeast.[95] Waterspouts and tornadoes have been advanced as an explanation for instances of raining fish and other animals.[96]

    Though tornadoes can strike in an instant, there are precautions and preventative measures that people can take to increase the chances of surviving a tornado. Authorities such as the Storm Prediction Center advise having a pre-determined plan should a tornado warning be issued. When a warning is issued, going to a basement or an interior first-floor room of a sturdy building greatly increases chances of survival.[97] In tornado-prone areas, many buildings have storm cellars on the property. These underground refuges have saved thousands of lives.[98]
    Some countries have meteorological agencies which distribute tornado forecasts and increase levels of alert of a possible tornado (such as tornado watches and warnings in the United States and Canada). Weather radios provide an alarm when a severe weather advisory is issued for the local area, though these are mainly available only in the United States. Unless the tornado is far away and highly visible, meteorologists advise that drivers park their vehicles far to the side of the road (so as not to block emergency traffic), and find a sturdy shelter. If no sturdy shelter is nearby, getting low in a ditch is the next best option. Highway overpasses are one of the worst places to take shelter during tornadoes, as the constricted space can be subject to increased wind speed and funneling of debris underneath the overpass.[99]
    Myths and misconceptions

    Main article: Tornado myths
    See also: List of common misconceptions
    Folklore often identifies a green sky with tornadoes, and though the phenomenon may be associated with severe weather, there is no evidence linking it specifically with tornadoes.[100] It is often thought that opening windows will lessen the damage caused by the tornado. While there is a large drop in atmospheric pressure inside a strong tornado, it is unlikely that the pressure drop would be enough to cause the house to explode. Some research indicates that opening windows may actually increase the severity of the tornado's damage. A violent tornado can destroy a house whether its windows are open or closed.[101][102]


    The 1999 Salt Lake City tornado disproved several misconceptions, including the idea that tornadoes cannot occur in areas like Utah or in cities.
    Another commonly held misconception is that highway overpasses provide adequate shelter from tornadoes. This belief is partly inspired by widely-circulated video captured during the 1991 tornado outbreak near Andover, Kansas, where a news crew and several other people take shelter under an overpass on the Kansas Turnpike and safely ride out a tornado as it passes by.[103] However, a highway overpass is a dangerous place during a tornado: the subjects of the video remained safe due to an unlikely combination of events: the storm in question was a weak tornado, did not directly strike the overpass, and the overpass itself was of a unique design.[103] Due to the Venturi effect, tornadic winds are accelerated in the confined space of an overpass.[104] Indeed, in the 1999 Oklahoma tornado outbreak of May 3, 1999, three highway overpasses were directly struck by tornadoes, and at all three locations there was a fatality, along with many life-threatening injuries.[105] By comparison, during the same tornado outbreak, more than 2000 homes were completely destroyed, with another 7000 damaged, and yet only a few dozen people died in their homes.[99]
    An old belief is that the southwest corner of a basement provides the most protection during a tornado. The safest place is the side or corner of an underground room opposite the tornado's direction of approach (usually the northeast corner), or the central-most room on the lowest floor. Taking shelter in a basement, under a staircase, or under a sturdy piece of furniture such as a workbench further increases chances of survival.[101][102]
    Finally, there are areas which people believe to be protected from tornadoes, whether by being in a city, near a major river, hill, or mountain, or even protected by supernatural forces.[106] Tornadoes have been known to cross major rivers, climb mountains,[107] affect valleys, and have damaged several city centers. As a general rule, no area is "safe" from tornadoes, though some areas are more susceptible than others.[22][101][102]
    Ongoing research


    A Doppler On Wheels unit observing a tornado near Attica, Kansas
    Meteorology is a relatively young science and the study of tornadoes is newer still. Although researched for about 140 years and intensively for around 60 years, there are still aspects of tornadoes which remain a mystery.[108] Scientists have a fairly good understanding of the development of thunderstorms and mesocyclones,[109][110] and the meteorological conditions conducive to their formation. However, the step from supercell (or other respective formative processes) to tornadogenesis and predicting tornadic vs. non-tornadic mesocyclones is not yet well known and is the focus of much research.[69]
    Also under study are the low-level mesocyclone and the stretching of low-level vorticity which tightens into a tornado,[69] namely, what are the processes and what is the relationship of the environment and the convective storm. Intense tornadoes have been observed forming simultaneously with a mesocyclone aloft (rather than succeeding mesocyclogenesis) and some intense tornadoes have occurred without a mid-level mesocyclone.[111]
    In particular, the role of downdrafts, particularly the rear-flank downdraft, and the role of baroclinic boundaries, are intense areas of study.[112]
    Reliably predicting tornado intensity and longevity remains a problem, as do details affecting characteristics of a tornado during its life cycle and tornadolysis. Other rich areas of research are tornadoes associated with mesovortices within linear thunderstorm structures and within tropical cyclones.[113]
    Scientists still do not know the exact mechanisms by which most tornadoes form, and occasional tornadoes still strike without a tornado warning being issued.[114] Analysis of observations including both stationary and mobile (surface and aerial) in-situ and remote sensing (passive and active) instruments generates new ideas and refines existing notions. Numerical modeling also provides new insights as observations and new discoveries are integrated into our physical understanding and then tested in computer simulations which validate new notions as well as produce entirely new theoretical findings, many of which are otherwise unattainable. Importantly, development of new observation technologies and installation of finer spatial and temporal resolution observation networks have aided increased understanding and better predictions.[115]
    Research programs, including field projects such as the VORTEX projects (Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment), deployment of TOTO (the TOtable Tornado Observatory), Doppler On Wheels (DOW), and dozens of other programs, hope to solve many questions that still plague meteorologists.[42] Universities, government agencies such as the National Severe Storms Laboratory, private-sector meteorologists, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research are some of the organizations very active in research; with various sources of funding, both private and public, a chief entity being the National Science Foundation.[89][116]
    Solar storms similar to tornadoes have been recorded, but it is unknown how closely related they are to their terrestrial counterparts.[117]
    See also

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    List of foods named after people

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's notability guideline for stand-alone lists. Please help to establish notability by adding reliable, secondary sources about the topic. If notability cannot be established, the article is likely to be merged, redirected, or deleted. (May 2012)
    This is a list of food items named after people.
    For other lists of eponyms (names derived from people) see eponym.
    For a list of eponyms sorted by name see List of eponyms.

    Top A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
    See also External links


    • Poularde Adelina Patti – named for 19th-century singing superstar Adelina Patti.
    • Pâté de filets d'oie Adolphe Hardy – the young Belgian poet Adolphe-Marie Hardy (1868–1954), first published in 1888, and subsequently rising to be a major figure in French literature, was favored early on by Charles Ranhofer with this goose liver pâté.
    • Woodcock salmis Agnès Sorel – one of the dishes Agnès Sorel (1422–1450) is reputed to have created herself. A garnish, soup, timbales, and tartlets all bear her name, as later chefs remembered her for her interest in food.
    • Big Hearted Al candy bar – early-20th-century presidential candidate Al Smith had this candy bar named after him by a candy-company owning admirer.
    • Fillet of Beef Prince AlbertQueen Victoria's Consort Prince Albert (1819–1861). Also named for him: an English white sauce, the pea and apple varieties, Coburg Soup (brussels sprouts and smoked bacon) and probably Albert Pudding.
    • Poularde Albufera, Albufera SauceLouis Gabriel Suchet (1770–1826), one of Napoleon's generals and Marshal of France for a time, was named duc d'Albufera after a lake near Valencia, Spain, to mark his victory there during thePeninsular War. Marie-Antoine Carême created several dishes in the duke's honor, including duck, beef, and the sauce that accompanies this chicken.
    • Alexandertorte – possibly Alexander I, the gourmet Russian tsar who employed Antonin Carême. Finland claims the creation, allegedly by Swiss pastry chefs in Helsinki in 1818, in anticipation of the tsar's visit there.
    • Gâteau Alexandra – like her husband Edward VII, Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925) was honored by an assortment of foods named after her when she was Princess of Wales and Queen. Besides this chocolate cake, there is consommé Alexandra, soup, sole, chicken quail, and various meat dishes.
    • Lobster Duke Alexis – the Russian Grand-Duke Alexis made a highly publicized visit to the U.S. in 1871. A dinner for him at Delmonico's featured this, and was kept on the menu by chef Charles Ranhofer.
    • Fettuccine Alfredo – Alfredo di Lelio, an early-20th-century Italian chef invented the dish for his wife at his Roman restaurant and popularized it among tourists.
    • Consommé Princess Alice – this consommé with artichoke hearts and lettuce is named for Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone (1883–1981), one of Queen Victoria's granddaughters.
    • Amundsen's Dessert – (1872–1928), invented for the Norwegian polar explorer by Norwegian-American friends in Wisconsin not long before he died in an Arctic plane crash.
    • Omelette André Theuriet – the French novelist and poet André Theuriet (1833–1907) has this omelette with truffles and asparagus named for him.
    • Angelina Burdett plum – bred by a Mr. Dowling of Southampton, England around 1850, was named after the philanthropist Baroness Angelina Burdett-Coutts (1814–1906).
    • Pommes Anna – the casserole of sliced potatoes cooked in butter was created and named by French chef Adolphe Dugléré for the 19th-century courtesan/actress Anna Deslions, who frequented Dugléré's Café Anglais (Paris). "Potatoes Annette" is a version of Potatoes Anna, with the potatoes julienned instead of in rounds.
    • Omelette Arnold Bennett – an unfolded omelette with smoked haddock invented at the Savoy Hotel for the writer Arnold Bennett
    • Oreiller de la Belle Aurore – Claudine-Aurore Récamier, the mother of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, also has a lobster dish named after her but this elaborate game pie was one of her son's favorite dishes. The large square pie contains a variety of game birds and their livers, veal, pork, truffles, aspic, and much else, in puff pastry.[1]
    • Château Ausone red Bordeaux wineAusonius (310–395), the poet employed by Valentinian I to tutor the Roman emperor's son, retired to the Bordeaux region and wrote about oyster farming. The wine named after him is said to be made of grapes grown on the site of his villa.



    • DartoisFrançois-Victor-Armand Dartois (1780–1867), once very well known author of French vaudeville plays, is commemorated by this pastry, made in several versions both sweet and savory.
    • Shrimp DeJonghe – shrimp and garlic casserole created at DeJonghe's Hotel, an early-20th-century restaurant in Chicago, owned by brothers from Belgium.
    • Sirloin of beef à la de LessepsFerdinand de Lesseps (1805–1894), French builder of the Suez Canal and first to try to build the Panama Canal, was honored with a dinner at Delmonico's in 1880. A banana dessert at the dinner was afterward termed "à la Panama." Ranhofer named this beef dish after de Lesseps, probably well before de Lesseps' 1889 bankruptcy scandal.
    • Delmonico steak – named for the Delmonico brothers' restaurant Delmonico's, at one time considered the finest restaurant in the United States. Delmonico steak and Lobster à la Delmonico are among the many named for the restaurant and/or its owners. The restaurant's chef Charles Ranhofer (1836–1899) named many dishes after historic figures, celebrities of the day, and favored customers.
    • Chicken Demidoff – Prince Anatole Demidoff (1813–1870), from a wealthy Russian industrialist family, lived in Paris from an early age with his mother, Elisabeth Stroganova. Both were extreme admirers of Napoleon, to the point where Demidoff had a brief marriage to Princess Mathilde, niece of Napoleon, and he also bought the Elba house of exile to turn into a museum. He was a patron of artists, and a bon vivant. There are two chicken dishes named after him. This one is elaboratedly stuffed, smothered, tied up and garnished. The Demidoff name is also applied to dishes of rissoles and red snapper.
    • Veal pie à la Dickens – probably around the time the popular novelist Charles Dickens (1812–1870) was making his second visit to New York, in 1867, Charles Ranhofer created this dish in his honor at Delmonico's. Ranhofer also had Beet fritters à la Dickens on the menu.
    • Doboschtorte or DobostortaJosef Dobos, well-known Hungarian pastry chef, (born 1847), created the multi-layered chocolate torte in Budapest or Vienna.
    • Dongpo pork – squares of pork, half lean meat and half fat, pan-fried then braised. Named after poet Su Dongpo (1037–1101)
    • Du Barry Cream SoupMadame du Barry (1743–1793), favorite of Louis XV of France after the death of the Marquise de Pompadour in 1764, had several dishes named for her, often involving cauliflower, as in this soup. The cauliflower is said to have been a reference to her elaborate powdered wigs.
    • Sole Dubois – named for the 19th-century French chef Urbain Dubois. (see Veal Prince Orloff)
    • Sole DugléréAdolphe Dugléré (1805–1884), starting as a student of Antonin Carême, became head chef at the famed Café Anglais in Paris in 1866, where he created and named many well-known dishes. Several dishes of fish bear his own name.
    • Salad à la DumasAlexandre Dumas, père (1802–1870), noted French author. Apparently a favorite of Charles Ranhofer, there are also timbales, stewed woodcock, and mushrooms à la Dumas.
    • Duxelles – a mushroom-based sauce or garnish attributed to the great 17th-century French chef François Pierre La Varenne (1615–1678) was probably named for his employer, Nicolas Chalon du Blé, marquis d'Uxelles. A variety of dishes use this name.




    • Hamantash – a small pastry allegedly named for the hat of the cruel Persian official outwitted by Queen Esther and hanged, Haman, in the Book of Esther. Homentashn are traditionally eaten at Purim.
    • Hass avocado – in the 1920s, California postal worker Rudolph Hass set out to grow a number of Lyon avocado trees in his backyard. One of the seedlings he bought was a chance variant which produced fruit, his children apparently noticed as unique. Hass patented the variety in 1935, and it now makes up about 75% of U.S. avocado production.
    • Heath bar – the American "English toffee" bar is named for brothers Bayard and Everett Heath, Illinois confectioners who developed it in the 1920s and eventually turned the local favorite into a nationally popular candy bar.
    • Hershey
    • Oh Henry! – the candy bar introduced by the Williamson Candy Company in Chicago, 1920, was named for a young man who frequented the company store and was often commandeered to do odd jobs with that call.
    • Hillel Sandwich – a traditional seder food, it consists of horseradish between two pieces of matzot, and was named after the Rabbi Hillel. In temple times, it also contained lamb.
    • Schnitzel à la Holstein – Baron Friedrich von Holstein (1837–1909), primary German diplomat after Otto von Bismarck, serving Kaiser Wilhelm II. The gourmet Holstein liked to have a variety of foods on one plate, and the original dish consisted of a veal cutlet topped by a fried egg, anchovies, capers, and parsley, and surrounded by small piles of caviar, crayfish tails, smoked salmon, mushrooms, and truffles. Contemporary versions tend to be pared down to the cutlet, egg, anchovies and capers.
    • Gâteau Saint-Honoré – pastry named for the French patron saint of bakers, confectioners, and pastry chefs, Saint Honoré or Honorius (died 653), Bishop of Amiens. The pastry chef Chiboust is thought to have invented it in his Paris shop in 1846.
    • Hubbard squash – Elizabeth Hubbard, who talked up the qualities of the heretofore unnamed squash in Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 1842–1843.
    • Omelette St. Hubert – the patron saint of hunters, St. Hubert of Liège (656–727), the son of Bertrand, Duke of Aquitane, has several dishes involving game named after him: this omelette with a game purée, tournedos of venison, a consommé, timbales of game meat and truffles, et al. The first bishop of Liège is said to have converted after seeing a stag with a cross in its antlers while he was hunting on a Good Friday.
    • Humboldt puddingAlexander von Humboldt (1769–1859), explorer and influential naturalist, has one of Ranhofer's elaborate molded puddings named after him.

    • Timbales à la IrvingWashington Irving (1789–1859), the American author, given Charles Ranhofer's penchant for honoring writers with his creations, is the likely source of the name.

    • Coquilles St. Jacques – the French term for scallops, and the Anglo-American term for the popular scallop dish with butter and garlic, owe their name to St. James the Great (died 44 AD), fisherman and first martyred apostle. His major shrine in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, drew pilgrims in quantity from all over Europe. The scallop's shell became an emblem of the pilgrimage as it was used as a water cup along the way, and sewn to the pilgrims' clothes like a badge. The scallop became an emblem of St. James, himself, although the timing is unclear. In Spanish, the scallop has "pilgrims" as part of its name, rather than Santiago.
    • Jansson's Temptation – thought to be named after the Swedish opera singer Per Janzon (1844–1889).
    • Apricots with rice à la JeffersonThomas Jefferson (1743–1826), third U.S. president, is honored appropriately with this Ranhofer dessert and with Jefferson rice, a recently developed strain of Texas rice. Jefferson was very interested in improving American rice culture, to which end he illegally smuggled Piedmont rice out of Italy. During his term as U.S. minister to France, Jefferson found the French preferred the qualities of Italian rice to Carolina rice. On a trip to see Rome, Jefferson stopped in Turin to collect a cache of seeds, and never reached Rome. The rice did reach the U.S.
    • Jenny Lind melon, Jenny Lind Soup, Oysters and Ham Jenny LindJenny Lind (1820–1887), the "Swedish Nightingale", was already a singing star in Europe when P. T. Barnum convinced her to tour the U.S. Her 1850 visit caused a sensation, and a number of foods were named in her honor.
    • Jesse Fish orange – popular 18th-century orange grown by New Yorker Jesse Fish, a.k.a. Joseph Fish (died 1798) before the Revolutionary War on Anastasia Island in Florida.
    • Jésus sausageJesus has small sausages of the French Basque and Savoy regions named after him. One version is called the Baby Jésus de Lyon.
    • Trout, Joan of Arc – the French martyr Joan of Arc (1412–1431) is remembered in this dish by Charles Ranhofer.
    • John Dory – the English name for a saltwater fish known elsewhere in Europe as Saint Peter's (San Pietro, Saint-Pierre, San Pedro) fish is said to be a reference to Saint Peter's role as "janitor" or doorkeeper at the gates of heaven. Legends claim that spots on the fish are either the fisherman apostle's fingerprints, or a reminder of the coin he found in the fish's mouth—a story from the Gospel of Luke.
    • Docteur Jules Guyot pear – 19th-century French agronomist Dr. Jules Guyot, c. 1870. Guyot did work for Napoléon III in several agricultural fields.
    • Flounder Jules JaninJules Gabriel Janin (1804–1874) was a somewhat eccentric 19th-century French dramatic critic. A good friend of Dumas and Berlioz, Janin wrote several novels; the best known is perhaps The Dead Donkey and the Guillotined Woman.
    • Sole Jules VerneJules Verne (1828–1905), the French novelist, had several dishes named after him besides this, including a sauce, a garnish, grenades of turkey, breasts of partridge, and meat dishes.
    • St. Julian plum – the fact that National Plum Pudding Day falls on the same day as that of Saint Julian the Hospitaller, February 12, may indicate the source of the name. Or not.


    • Crawfish Lafayette en Crêpe – the Marquis de Lafayette, Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier (1757–1834), famed French supporter of the American Revolution, is most likely the name source of this New Orleans dish.Lafayette gingerbread was also a popular cake in the 19th-century U.S., with recipes in many cookbooks.
    • Dartois LaguipièreLaguipière (c. 1750–1812) an influential French chef and mentor of Antonin Câreme, worked for the noted Condé family, Napoleon, and finally Marshal Joachim Murat, whom he accompanied on Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He died on the retreat from Moscow. This double-eponym savory pastry, filled with sweetbreads and truffles (see Dartois above), is one of many dishes with his name, either his own recipes or those of other chefs commemorating him, including consommé, various sauces, beef tournedos and fish.
    • Shrimp Lamaze – developed by chef Johann Lamprecht at Philadelphia's Warwick Hotel. The dish is named after the proprietor of the Warwick Hotel, George Lamaze.
    • Lord Lambourne apple – the apple developed in England in about 1907 was introduced in 1923, and named after the then-president of the Royal Horticultural Society.
    • Lamingtons – these small cakes, considered one of Australia's national foods, are usually considered to be named after Charles Cochrane-Baillie, 2nd Baron Lamington, who was governor of Queensland 1896–1901. But there are other interesting claims which can't be covered adequately here. Go to lamingtons .
    • General Leclerc pear – the French pear developed in the 1950s and introduced in 1974 is named for Jacques-Philippe Leclerc de Hautecloque (1902–1947), World War II French war hero. General Leclerc, as he was better known, dropped his last name during the Occupation to protect his family.
    • Leibniz-Keks – German butter biscuit named for philosopher and mathematician Leibniz
    • Li Hongzhang hotchpotch – a stew named after Chinese statesman Li Hongzhang (1823–1901) [4]
    • Biff à la Lindström – this Swedish beef dish is thought to be named the man who brought it from Russia to Sweden. Henrik Lindström is said to have been born in St. Petersburg, Russia. Swedish food lore has it that the army officer brought the recipe to the Hotel Witt in Kalmar, Sweden, c. 1862. The beets and capers included may indicate Russian origin or influence.
    • Lindy candy barCharles Lindbergh (1902–1974), the pioneering aviator who was first to fly solo, non-stop, across the Atlantic, had at least two American candy bars named after him; another – the "Winning Lindy."
    • Cream of cardoon soup à la LivingstonDr. David Livingston (1813–1873), Scottish missionary and explorer has this Delmonico's soup named after him, also available in celery.
    • Loganberry - a cross of a blackberry and a raspberry, was accidentally created in 1883 in Santa Cruz, California, by the American lawyer and horticulturist James Harvey Logan.
    • Crab Louis – (pronounced Loo-ey) while Louis XIV is often cited as the inspiration because of his notorious fondness for food, The Davenport Hotel (Spokane) in Spokane, Washington claims Louis Davenport is the name source and inventor. Davenport was a Spokane restaurateur from 1889 on, and opened the hotel in 1914. There are several other alleged creators, including Victor Hirtzler (see Celery Victor).
    • Macaroni LucullusLucullus (c. 106–56 BC), full name Lucius Licinius Lucullus Ponticus, was perhaps the earliest recorded gastronome in the Western world. After a long spell of wars, the Roman general retired to a life of indulgence and opulence, most evident in his gardens and his cuisine. His name has become associated with numerous dishes of the over-the-top sort, using haute cuisine's favorite luxury staples—truffles, foie gras, asparagus tips, artichoke hearts, sweetbreads, cockscombs, game, Madeira, and so on. Macaroni Lucullus incorporates truffles and foie gras.
    • Lussekatter, St. Lucia buns – Swedish saffron buns named for Saint Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), whose name day, December 13, was once considered the longest night of the year. As Lucia means light, the saint was incorporated into the celebration when these buns are traditionally eaten. The Swedish term, Lucia's cats, refers to the bun's curled shape.

    • Mamie Eisenhower fudge – the wife of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mamie Doud Eisenhower (1896–1979) had this candy named after her when she revealed it was a White House favorite. Mamie Eisenhower was First Lady from 1952 to 1960.
    • Mapo doufu – the name Mapo (麻婆) is thought to refer to a (possibly fictional) old pockmarked-face lady by the name of Chen, who invented and sold the dish. It is thus sometimes translated as "Pockmarked-Face Lady's Tofu", or "Pockmarked Mother Chen's Tofu".
    • Sole Marco Polo – the great explorer and traveler Marco Polo (1254–1324) has this dish of sole with lobster and, somewhat oddly, tomato, named after him.
    • Margarita – there are many claims for the name of this tequila/lime/orange liqueur cocktail. Dallas socialite Margarita Samas said she invented it in 1948 for one of her Acapulco parties. Enrique Bastate Gutierrez claimed he invented it in Tijuana in the 1940s for Rita Hayworth. Hayworth's real name was Margarita Cansino, and another story connects the drink to her during an earlier time when she was dancing in Tijuana nightclubs under that name. Carlos Herrera said he created and named the cocktail in his Tijuana restaurant in 1938–1939 for Marjorie King. Ms. King was reportedly allergic to all alcohol except tequila, and had asked for something besides a straight shot. Around this same general time period, Nevada bartender Red Hinton said he'd named the cocktail after his girlfriend Margarita Mendez. Other stories exist.
    • Pizza Margherita – Queen Margherita of Savoy (1851–1926) was presented with this pizza in the colors of the Italian flag on a trip to Naples, c. 1889. Many people claimed to have created it.
    • Sole MargueryNicholas Marguery (1834–1910), famed French chef, created and named this dish, along with others, for himself and his restaurant Marguery in Paris.
    • Chicken Maria TheresiaMaria Theresia (1717–1780), Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and wife of Emperor Franz I. Coffee Maria Theresia includes cream and orange liqueur.
    • Consommé Marie StuartMary Stuart (1542–1587), Queen of Scots, was appropriatedly Frenchified by Ranhofer in naming this dish. She, herself, had adopted Stuart vs. Stewart while living in France.
    • Martha Washington's CakeMartha Washington (1731–1802), wife of George Washington, is remembered for this fruitcake. Her original recipe for her "Great Cake" called for 40 eggs, 5 pounds of fruit, and similar quantities of other ingredients.
    • Bloody Mary – a popular cocktail containing vodka, tomato juice, and usually other spices or flavorings.
    • Poires Mary GardenMary Garden (1874–1967) was a hugely popular opera singer in Europe and the U.S. at the start of the 20th century. Born in Scotland, she emigrated to the U.S. as a child, then came to Paris in 1897 to complete her training. After her 1900 debut at the Opéra-Comique, she was much sought-after by composers for starring roles in their operas. Escoffier made this dish in her honor, and is said to have told a friend once that all his best dishes had been created "for the ladies". (see Melba, Rachel, Réjane, et al. below)
    • Mary Jane – peanut butter and molasses candy bars developed by Charles N. Miller in 1914, and named after his favorite aunt.
    • Mary Thomas – Egg-salad and bacon with thin slice of onion within quality slices of toast. Served at Arnold's Bar and Grill and Mullane's Parkside Cafe, both of Cincinnati.
    • Massillon – the small almond pastry is named for noted French bishop and preacher Jean-Baptiste Massillon (1663–1742), a temporary favorite of Louis XIV. The pastry originated in the town of Hyères, where Massillon was born.
    • Pâté chaud ris de veau à la McAllister – most likely, Samuel Ward McAllister (1827–1895) is the name source of the hot veal pâté Charles Ranhofer created at Delmonico's. McAllister was best known for his list of the 400 people he considered New York City society.
    • McIntosh apple – John McIntosh (1777–1846), American-Canadian farmer who discovered the variety in Ontario, Canada in 1796 or 1811.
    • Peach MelbaDame Nellie Melba (1861–1931). Chef Auguste Escoffier at the Savoy Hotel in 1892 or 1893 heard her sing at Covent Garden and was inspired to create a dessert for her, and which he named after her.
    • Melba toastDame Nellie Melba (1861–1931), Australian soprano, née Mitchell, took her stage name from her hometown of Melbourne. In 1892–1893, she was living at the Savoy Hotel in London, which was then managed by César Ritzand Auguste Escoffier. During an illness, the singer favored some extremely dry toast which was subsequently named for her. Around this same time, Escoffier created the dessert Peach Melba in her honor. There is also a Melba garnish (raspberry sauce) that is an ingredient of Peach Melba.
    • Bisque of shrimps à la Melville – when the great American author Herman Melville (1819–1891) died in New York, he had been almost forgotten for decades. Charles Ranhofer, however, remembered him with this seafood dish.
    • Beef tenderloin minions à la MeyerbeerGiacomo Meyerbeer (1791–1864), the influential 19th-century opera composer, is honored by this dish.
    • Mirepoix – the carrot and onion mixture used for sauces and garnishes is thought to be named after Charles-Pierre-Gaston François de Lévis, duc de Lévis-Mirepoix, 18th-century Marshal of France and one of Louis XV's ambassadors.
    • Poulet sauté Montesquieu – culinary tribute to the philosopher and author, Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat (1689–1755), major intellect during the French Enlightenment. There is also a frozen dessert, "Plombière Montesquieu."
    • Potage anglais de poisson à Lady MorganLady Morgan, née Sydney Owenson (1776–1859), a popular Irish novelist, was visiting Baron James Mayer de Rothschild in 1829, when Câreme created this elaborate fish soup in her honor. If you have several days available, you can make it yourself. Go to soupsong .
    • Mornay sauce – diplomat and writer Philippe de Mornay (1549–1623), a member of Henri IV's court, is often cited as the name source for this popular cheese version of Béchamel sauce. The alternative story is that 19th-century French chef Joseph Voiron invented it and named it after one of his cooks, Mornay, his oldest son.
    • Mozartkugel – Salzburg, the birthplace of composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791), is also the place where this marzipan/nougat-filled chocolate was created c. 1890. Also in the composer's honor, Ranhofer created "Galantine of pullet à la Mozart" at Delmonico's.
    • Lamb cutlets MurilloBartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682), the influential Spanish painter, was apparently a favorite artist of Charles Ranhofer.




  19. a.tramp

    a.tramp Insubordinate and churlish
    Kansas State WildcatsTexas Rangers


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    This article is about the mythical beings. For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation).


    Look at them, troll mother said. Look at my sons! You won't find more beautiful trolls on this side of the moon. (1915) by John Bauer
    A troll is a supernatural being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In origin, troll may have been a negative synonym for a jötunn (plural jötnar), a being in Norse mythology. In Old Norse sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, and are rarely helpful to human beings.
    Later, in Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized, and are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the region from which accounts of trolls stem, their appearance varies greatly; trolls may be ugly and slow-witted or look and behave exactly like human beings, with no particularly grotesque characteristic about them. Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. One of the most famous elements of Scandinavian folklore, trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture.


    Norse mythology

    In Norse mythology, troll, like thurs, is a term applied to jötnar, and are mentioned throughout the Old Norse corpus. In Old Norse sources, trolls are said to dwell in isolated mountains, rocks, and caves, sometimes live together (usually as father-and-daughter or mother-and-son), and are rarely described as helpful or friendly.[1] In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, a scenario describing an encounter between an unnamed troll woman and the 9th century skald Bragi Boddason is provided. According to the section, once, late in the evening, Bragi was driving through "a certain forest" when a troll woman aggressively asked him who he was, in the process describing herself:

    Old Norse:
    Troll kalla mik
    trungl sjǫtrungnis,
    auðsug jǫtuns,
    élsólar bǫl,
    vilsinn vǫlu,
    vǫrð nafjarðar,
    hvélsveg himins –
    hvat's troll nema þat?[2]
    Anthony Faulkes translation:
    'Trolls call me
    moon of dwelling-Rungnir,
    giant's wealth-sucker,
    storm-sun's bale,
    seeress's friendly companion,
    guardian of corpse-fiord,
    swallower of heaven-wheel;
    what is a troll other than that?'[3]
    John Lindow translation:
    They call me a troll,
    moon of the earth-Hrungnir [?]
    wealth sucker [?] of the giant,
    destroyer of the storm-sun [?]
    beloved follower of the seeress,
    guardian of the "nafjord" [?]
    swallower of the wheel of heaven [the sun].
    What's a troll if not that?[2]
    Bragi responds in turn, describing himself and his abilities as a skillful skald, before the scenario ends.[3]
    There is much confusion and overlap in the use of Old Norse terms jötunn, troll, þurs and risi, which describe various beings. Lotte Motz theorized that these were originally four distinct classes of beings; lords of nature (jötunn), mythical magicians (troll), hostile monsters (þurs) and heroic and courtly beings (risi)—the last class being the youngest addition. Ármann Jakobsson calls this theory "unsupported by any convincing evidence".[4] He has gone on to study the Old Norse examples of the term troll and has concluded that in the Middle Ages, the term is used to denote various beings such as a giant or mountain-dweller, a witch, an abnormally strong or large or ugly person, an evil spirit, a ghost, a blámaðr, a magical boar, a heathen demi-god, a demon, a brunnmigi or a berserk.[5][clarification needed]
    Scandinavian folklore

    Later, in Scandinavian folklore, trolls become defined as a particular type of being.[6] Numerous tales about trolls are recorded, in which they are frequently described as being extremely old, very strong, but slow and dim-witted, and are at times described as man-eaters and as turning to stone upon contact with sunlight.[7] However, trolls are also attested as looking much the same as human beings, without any particularly hideous appearance about them, but where they differ is in that they live far away from human habitation, and, unlike the and näck—who are attested as "solitary beings", trolls generally have "some form of social organization". Where they differ, Lindow adds, is that they are not Christian, and those that encounter them do not know them. Therefore trolls were in the end dangerous, regardless of how well they may get along with Christian society, and trolls display a habit of bergtagning ('kidnapping'; literally "mountain-taking") and overrunning a farm or estate.[8]
    While noting that the etymology of the word "troll" remains uncertain, John Lindow defines trolls in later Swedish folklore as "nature beings" and as "all-purpose otherworldly being, equivalent, for example, to fairies in Anglo-Celtic traditions" and that they "therefore appear in various migratory legends where collective nature-beings are called for". Lindow notes that trolls are sometimes swapped out for cats and "little people" in the folklore record.[8]
    A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away trolls and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, and may be a late reflection of the god Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and jötnar in modern Scandinavia is sometimes explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes".[9] Additionally, the absence of trolls in regions of Scandinavia are described in folklore as being a "consequence of the constant din of the church-bells". This ring caused the trolls to leave for other lands, although not without some resistance; numerous traditions relate how trolls destroyed a church under construction or lunged boulders and stones at completed churches. Large local stones are sometimes described as the product of a troll's toss.[10] Additionally, into the 20th century, the origins of particular Scandinavian landmarks, such as particular stones, are ascribed to trolls who may, for example, have turned to stone upon exposure to sunlight.[7]
    Lindow compares the trolls of the Swedish folk tradition to supernatural mead hall invader Grendel in the Old English poem Beowulf, and notes that "just as the poem Beowulf emphasizes not the harrying of Grendel but the cleansing of the hall of Beowulf, so the modern tales stress the moment when the trolls are driven off."[8]
    Smaller trolls are attested as living in burial mounds and in mountains in Scandinavian folk tradition.[11] In Denmark, these creatures are recorded as troldfolk ("troll-folk"), bjergtrolde ("mountain-trolls"), or bjergfolk ("mountain-folk") and in Norway also as troldfolk ("troll-folk") and tusser.[11] Trolls may be described as small, human-like beings or as tall as men depending on the region of origin of the story.[12] James MacCulloch theorizes a connection between the Old Norse vættir and trolls, theorizing that both concepts may either stem from (or ultimately derive from) spirits of the dead.[13]
    In Norwegian tradition, similar tales may be told about the larger trolls and the Huldrefolk ("hidden-folk") yet a distinction is made between the two. The use of the word trow in Orkney and Shetland, to mean beings which are very like the Huldrefolk in Norway may suggest a common origin for the terms. The word troll may have been used by pagan Norse settlers in Orkney and Shetland as a collective term for supernatural beings who should be respected and avoided rather than worshiped. Troll could later have become specialized as a description of the larger, more menacing Jötunn-kind whereas Huldrefolk may have developed as the general term applied to smaller trolls.[14]
    See also

    Folklore portal
    • Changeling; in Scandinavian folklore, a human baby is sometimes swapped with a troll child
    • Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr, a Norse goddess whose surname sometimes contains the element -troll

    1. ^ Orchard (1997:167).
    2. ^ a b Lindow (2007:22).
    3. ^ a b Faulkes (1995:132).
    4. ^ Ármann Jakobsson (2006).
    5. ^ Ármann Jakobsson (2008).
    6. ^ Simek (2007:335).
    7. ^ a b Kvedelund, Sehsmdorf (2010:301—313).
    8. ^ a b c Lindow (1978:33—35).
    9. ^ See Lindow (1978:89), but noted as early as Thorpe (1851:154) who states "The dread entertained by Trolls for thunder dates from the time of paganism, Thor [ . . . ] being the deadly foe of their race".
    10. ^ Thorpe (1851:158, 154—156).
    11. ^ a b MacCulloch (1930:223—224).
    12. ^ MacCulloch (1930:219—223, 224).
    13. ^ MacCulloch (1930:228 & 231).
    14. ^ Narváez (1997:118).

  20. wtx

    wtx you don't want zero problems big fella
    Texas LonghornsTexas RangersWichita State Shockers


    • Nachos - First created c. 1943 by Ignacio "Nacho" Anaya, the original nachos consisted of fried corn tortillas covered with melted cheddar cheese and pickled jalapeño peppers.
    • Napoleon – an alternate name for mille-feuille, was probably not named for the Emperor, but for the city of Naples.
    • Napoleon Brandy – a sort of brandy named for Napoleon Bonaparte.
    • Bigarreau Napoleon cherry – unlike the pastry, the French cherry was most likely named after Napoleon Bonaparte, his son Napoleon II, or his nephew Napoleon III. The sweet, white-fleshed (bigarreau) cherry often used in maraschino cherry production fell into the hands of Oregon's Seth Luelling of Bing cherry fame (the Napoleon is a forebear of the Bing), and he renamed it the Royal Anne. Subsequently the cherry also became known as Queen Anne cherry in North America.
    • Lord Nelson appleAdmiral Horatio Nelson (1758–1805), British hero of the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson also has a dish of mutton cutlets named after him, as well as an early-19th-century boiled sweet (or hard candy) somewhat indelicately called "Nelson's balls."
    • Nesselrode Pudding – Russian diplomat Count Karl Robert von Nesselrode (1780–1862) had several dishes named for him, usually containing chestnuts, like this iced dessert.
    • Lobster Newberg – variously spelled Newburg and Newburgh, and now applied to other seafood besides lobster, this dish is usually attributed to a Captain Ben Wenberg, who brought the recipe he had supposedly found in his travels toDelmonico's in the late 19th century. The chef, Charles Ranhofer, reproduced the dish for him and put it on the restaurant menu as Lobster Wenberg. Allegedly, the two men had a falling-out, Ranhofer took the dish off the menu, and returned it, renamed, only at other customers' insistence.
    • Marshal Ney – the elaborate Ranhofer dessert—molded tiers of meringue shells, vanilla custard, and marzipan—is named after Napoleon's Marshal Michel Ney (1769–1815), who led the retreat from Moscow and was a commander atWaterloo.

    • Potatoes O'Brien – possibly William Smith O'Brien (1803–1864), who led the Irish revolt subsequent to the 1844 Potato Famine is the source of the name.
    • Bath Oliver biscuitsDr William Oliver (1695–1764) of Bath, England concocted these as a digestive aid for his patients. Oliver had opened a bath for the treatment of gout, and was largely responsible for 18th-century Bath becoming a popular health resort.
    • Salade Olivier – a salad composed of diced vegetables and sometimes meat, bound in mayonnaise, invented in the 1860s by Lucien Olivier, the chef of the Hermitage Restaurant in Moscow.
    • Œufs sur le plat Omer Pasha – the Hungarian-Croatian Mihailo Latas known as Omer Pasha Latas (1806–1871), commander-in-chief of Turkish forces allied with the French and English during the Crimean War had this sort of Hungarian/Turkish dish of eggs named for him. In the U.S., Ranhofer made a dish of hashed mutton Omer Pasha, as well as eggs on a dish.
    • Veal Prince Orloff – Count Gregory Orloff, paramour of tzarina Catherine the Great is often cited. Much more likely, Urbain Dubois, noted 19th-century French chef, created the dish for his veal-hating employer Prince Nicolas Orloff, minister to tzar Nicolas I, hence the multiple sauces and seasonings. Stuffed pheasant à la Prince Orloff was created by Charles Ranhofer.
    • Veal Oscar – Sweden's King Oscar II (1829–1907) The dish was first served at Restaurant Operakällaren, Stockholm, Sweden in 1897 in conjunction with the world fair. It was composed by the French mâitre de cuisine of the Operakällaren restaurant, Paul Edmond Malaise, for the 25th anniversary of the accession of King Oscar II to the throne. Choron sauce that has the color of red as the same as the kings royal mantel is piped in the shape of an "O" around a slice of fried fillet of veal. On top the fillet, a white slice of lobster tail and a slice of black truffle are placed to symbolize the black and white outer trimming on the royal mantle and you create King Oscar's crowned monogram. This is topped with two white sticks of asparagus, forming a Roman number two as for the number of the king being Oscar the 2nd. Contemporary versions may substitute chicken and crab.
    • Oysters Rockefeller - a cooked hors d'ouervre identified with New Orleans

    • Selle d'agneau à la PaganiniNiccolò Paganini (1782–1840), Italian opera composer and brilliant violinist, has this lamb dish named after him, probably by Charles Ranhofer.
    • Potatoes ParmentierAntoine-Augustin Parmentier (1737–1817), chief proponent in reversing the French public view about the once-despised potato. Parmentier discovered the food value of the vegetable while a prisoner of war in Germany, where the potato had already been accepted.
    • PastillesGiovanni Pastilla, Italian confectioner to Marie de' Medici, is said to have accompanied her to Paris on her marriage to Henri IV, and created some form of the tablets named after him there.
    • Lobster Paul BertPaul Bert (1833–1886) was a French physiologist, diplomat, and politician, but is perhaps best known for his research on the effect of air pressure on the body. Charles Ranhofer was either a friend or fan of the father of aerospace medicine.
    • PavlovaAnna Pavlova (1881–1931), Russian ballerina. Both Australia and New Zealand have claimed to be the source of the meringue ("light as Pavlova") and fruit dessert.
    • Pedro Ximenez – a Vinifera grape, named after the soldier who allegedly brought it to Spain.
    • Dr PepperCharles T. Pepper. The soft drink invented by pharmacist Charles Atherton in 1885 at a Waco, Texas drugstore owned by Wade Morrison is said to be named for Morrison's first employer, who owned a pharmacy in Virginia.
    • Dom Pérignon (wine)Dom Pérignon (1638–1715), (Pierre) a French Benedictine monk, expert winemaker and developer of the first true champagne in the late 17th century.
    • Eggs Picabia - Eight eggs well mixed, lightly salted, cooked in a half-pound butter over a very, very, very low flame. Named by Gertrude Stein in her The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook after Francis Picabia (22 January 1879 – 30 November 1953) and his recipe.
    • Sole Picasso – this fruity fish was named after Pablo Picasso. The dish consists of fried or grilled sole and warm fruit in a ginger-lemon sauce.
    • Pio Quinto – this Nicaraguan dessert was named after Pope Pius V.
    • Pizza Di Rosso - is a pizza topped with sliced tomatoes, black olives, mozzarella, eggplant and capsicum. Named after Count Enrico Di Rosso who selected the ingredients to create this variety of vegetarian pizza the colours of which resemble the red and white of the Order of St.George of which the Count is Patron.
    • Veal cutlets Pojarski – Pojarski is said to have been a cook/innkeeper favored by Tsar Nicholas I because of his version of minced veal or beef cutlets. Sometimes called meat balls Pojarski, the originals were reformed on veal chop bones for presentation.
    • Rissoles Pompadour – the Marquise de Pompadour, Jeanne Poisson (1721–1764), official paramour of Louis XV from 1745 until her death, has had many dishes named after her besides these savory fried pastries. Mme. Pompadour's interest in cooking is remembered with lamb, sole, chicken, beef, pheasant, garnishes, croquettes, cakes and desserts, created by a number of chefs during and after her life.
    • PralineCésar de Choiseul, Count du Plessis-Praslin (1598–1675), by his officer of the table Lassagne, presented at the court of Louis XIII. The caramelized almond confection was transformed at some point in Louisiana to a pecan-based one. This praline has gone on to be known by another eponym in the U.S.: Aunt Bill's Brown Candy. Aunt Bill's identity is apparently unknown.
    • PrinzregententorteLuitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria
    • Toronchino Procope – Charles Ranhofer named this ice cream dessert after the Sicilian Francesco Procopio dei Coltelli, whose Café Procope, opening in Paris in 1686, introduced flavored ices to the French.


    • Lamprey à la RabelaisFrançois Rabelais (c. 1484–1553), French monk, turned physician, turned famed writer and satirist, was honored in this dish by Delmonico's chef Charles Ranhofer.
    • Tournedos Rachel – from singing in the streets of Paris as a child, Swiss-born Elisa-Rachel Félix (1821–1858) went on to become known as the greatest French tragedienne of her day. Her stage name Rachel is used for a number of dishes—consommé, eggs, sweetbreads, et al.—many created by Escoffier. In New York City, Charles Ranhofer created "artichokes à la Rachel" in her honor.
    • Ramos Gin FizzHenry C. Ramos, New Orleans bartender, created this cocktail c. 1888, at either Meyer's Restaurant or the Imperial Cabinet Saloon, and named it after himself.
    • Chicken Raphael WeillRaphael Weill (1837–1920) arrived in San Francisco from France at the age of 18. Within a few years he had founded what was to be one of California's largest department stores. Later he helped found the well-known Bohemian Club, which still exists. He liked to cook, and is remembered in San Francisco restaurants with this dish.
    • Reggie BarReggie Jackson (born 1946), American baseball player of the 1970s, had this now-extinct candy bar named for him.
    • Salad RéjaneGabrielle Réjane was the stage name for Gabrielle-Charlotte Reju (1856–1920), a French actress at the start of the 20th century. Escoffier named several dishes for her, including consommé, sole, and œufs à la neige.
    • Reuben sandwich – possibly Reuben Kolakofsky (1874–1960) made it for a poker group gathered at his restaurant in an Omaha, Nebraska hotel c. 1925, or Arnold Reuben, a New York restaurateur (1883–1970), may have created and named it c. 1914.
    • Rigó Jancsi – the Viennese chocolate and cream pastry[5] is named after the Gypsy violinist, Rigó Jancsi[5] (by Hungarian use, Rigó is his last name, Jancsi his first, called literally 'Blackbird Johnny'). He is perhaps best known for his part in one of the great late-19th-century society scandales. In 1896, Clara Ward, Princesse de Caraman-Chimay. The Princesse de Chimay saw the charming Rigó Jancsi, first violinist playing Hungarian Gypsy music in a Paris restaurant in 1896 while dining with her husband, Prince de Chimay. She ran off with Rigó, married him, divorced him, and later married two other men too.
    • Robert E. Lee Cake – southern U.S. lemon layer cake named for American Civil War General Robert E. Lee (1807–1870).
    • Oysters RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller or family, by son of Antoine Alciatore Jules, 1899, at New Orleans restaurant Antoine's. The original recipe remains a family secret, but the mixed greens are not the spinach that now characterizes most versions.
    • Strawberries Romanoff – although there are a number of claimants for the creation of this dish, including the Hollywood restaurateur self-styled "Prince Michael Romanoff", credit is most often given to Marie-Antoine Carême, when he was chef to tzar Alexander I around 1820. Romanoff was the house name of the Russian rulers.
    • Ronald Reagan's Hamburger SoupRonald Reagan, while President, had this recipe issued publicly in 1986, after he had gotten flak for saying he liked French soups.
    • Ross Sauce – a multipurpose barbecue sauce invented by Scott Ross in Habersham County, Georgia. Scott Ross, a high school chemistry teacher and wrestling coach, says that his sauce "goes great on anything" suggesting salad, popcorn, and almost anything but meats.
    • Tournedos RossiniGioacchino Rossini (1792–1868), Italian composer known almost as well as a gastronome. A friend of Carême, Prince Metternich, et al., Rossini had many dishes named for him: eggs, chicken, soup, salad, cannelloni, sole, risotto, pheasant, and more. Escoffier was responsible for many of these. Charles Ranhofer created "Meringued pancakes à la Rossini."
    • Soufflé Rothschild – a dessert soufflé created by Marie-Antoine Carême for Baron James Mayer de Rothschild (1792–1868) and Baroness Betty de Rothschild (1805–1886) in the 1820s. The Baron was a notable French banker and diplomat. It was originally flavoured with Goldwasser but is now flavoured with a variety of other liqueurs and spirits including kirsch.
    • Rumford's SoupBenjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
    • Runeberg-pastry (Runebergintorttu / Runebergstårta) – named after the Finnish poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804–1877). The 5th of February is in Finland Runeberg-day and it is celebrated with this almond-pastry that is said to have been invented by Johan Ludvig's wife Fredrika. There is also a variation of this called the Fredrika-pastry.
    • Baby Ruth candy bar – most likely, Babe Ruth (1895–1948) was the inspiration for the name. Although the Curtiss Candy Co. has insisted from the beginning that the candy bar was named after a daughter of Grover Cleveland, Ruth Cleveland died in 1904 at the age of 12, while the Baby Ruth was introduced in 1921 right at a time when George Herman Ruth, Jr. had become a baseball superstar. It is interesting to note that very early versions of the wrapper offer a baseball glove for 79 cents. Babe Ruth's announced intent to sue the company is probably what drove and perpetuated the dubious cover story.

    • SachertorteFranz Sacher, Vienna, 1832, working for Prince Metternich.
    • Chicken filets Sadi Carnot – chef Charles Ranhofer almost certainly had French President Marie François Sadi Carnot (1837–1894) in mind, not his uncle, the physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796–1832).
    • Flan Sagan – see Talleyrand below. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord held the title of Prince of Żagań. This flan of truffles, mushrooms, and calves' brains was one of several Sagan-named dishes, usually involving brains, including a garnish and scrambled eggs.
    • Salisbury steakDr. James H. Salisbury (1823–1905), early U.S. health food advocate, created this dish and advised his patients to eat it three times a day, while limiting their intake of "poisonous" vegetables and starches.
    • Beef hash Sam WardSam Ward (1814–1884) was perhaps the most influential Washington lobbyist of the mid-19th century. He was as well known for his entertaining as his political work, apparently agreeing with Talleyrand that dining well was essential to diplomacy. Why Ranhofer named a beef hash after him is open to speculation.
    • SandwichJohn Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718–1792) did not invent the sandwich. Meat between slices of bread had been eaten long before him. But as the often-repeated story goes, his title name was applied to it c. 1762, after he frequently called for the easily handled food while entertaining friends. Their card games then were not interrupted by the need for forks and such.
    • Sarah Bernhardt Cakes – French actress Sarah Bernhardt (1844–1923). The pastry may be Danish in origin. There is a Sole Sarah Bernhardt, and a soufflé. "Sarah Bernhardt" may indicate a dish garnished with a purée of foie gras, and Delmonico's "Sarah Potatoes", by Charles Ranhofer, are most likely named for the actress.
    • Schillerlocken – two quite distinct foods named after the curly hair of the German poet Friedrich von Schiller (1759–1805). One is cream-filled puff pastry cornets; the other is long strips of dried, smoked shark meat. Ranhofer named a dessert of pancakes rolled up, sliced, and layered in a mold Schiller pudding.
    • Seckel pear – although little is known about the origin of this American pear, it is generally believed that a Pennsylvania farmer named Seckel discovered the fruit in the Delaware River Valley near Philadelphia, in the 18th or early 19th century.
    • Lobster cutlets à la ShelleyPercy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822), the great English poet, drowned off the coast of Italy. Charles Ranhofer remembered him with this.
    • Shirley Temple – the classic children's cocktail of club soda, grenadine, and a maraschino cherry was invented in the late 1930s at Hollywood's Chasen's restaurant for the child star Shirley Temple (1928–). A slice of orange and a straw is suggested; the paper parasol is optional.
    • Soubise sauce – the onion purée or béchamel sauce with added onion purée is probably named after the 18th-century aristocrat Charles de Rohan, Prince de Soubise, and Marshal of France.
    • Eggs StanleySir Henry Morton Stanley (1841–1904), the famed British explorer, has several dishes named for him, usually with onions and a small amount of curry seasoning. A recipe for these poached eggs has a sauce with 1/2 teaspoon of curry powder.
    • Beef Stroganoff – a 19th-century Russian dish, named for a Count Stroganov (possibly Count Pavel Alexandrovich Stroganov or Count Grigory Dmitriyevich Stroganov)
    • SukjunamulShin Suk-ju
    • Crepes Suzette – said to have been created for then-Prince of Wales Edward VII on 31 January 1896, at the Café de Paris in Monte Carlo. When the prince ordered a special dessert for himself and a young female companion, Henri Charpentier, then 16 (1880–1961), produced the flaming crepe dish. Edward reportedly asked that the dessert be named after his companion (Suzette) rather than himself. However, Larousse disputes Charpentier's claim.
    • Sydney Smith's salad dressing – Salad dressing named after founder of the Edinburgh Review, Sydney Smith (1771–1845). He was a clergyman who wrote a poem which describes how to make this salad. Popular in the 19th century among American cooks.

    • TakuanTakuan Sōhō
    • Talleyrand – a pineapple savarin is one of many dishes named for the epicurean French statesman Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754–1838). An influential negotiator at the Congress of Vienna, Talleyrand considered dining a major part of diplomacy. Antonin Câreme worked for him for a time, and Talleyrand was instrumental in furthering his career. The host's eponymous dishes include sauces, tournedos, veal, croquettes, orange fritters, et al.
    • Tarte TatinStephine Tatin (1838–1917) and Caroline Tatin (1847–1911). In French, the tarte is known as à la Demoiselles Tatin for the sisters who ran the Hotel Tatin in Lamotte Beuvron, France. Stephine allegedly invented the upside-down tart accidentally in the fall of 1898, but the pastry may be much older.
    • Beef Tegetthoff – Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff (1827–1871), Austrian naval hero, is celebrated by this beef dish with seafood ragôut.
    • Chicken Tetrazzini – named for operatic soprano Luisa Tetrazzini, the "Florentine Nightingale" (1871–1941), and created in San Francisco.
    • Tootsie RollsClara "Tootsie" Hirshfield, the small daughter of Leo Hirshfield, developer of the first paper-wrapped penny candy, in New York, 1896.
    • Biscuit Tortoni – the Italian Tortoni, working at the Café Velloni which had opened in Paris in 1798, bought the place and renamed it the Café Tortoni. It became a very successful restaurant and ice cream parlor in the 19th century. This ice cream dish is said to be one of his creations.
    • General Tso's chicken – Named for General Zuǒ Zōngtáng (1812–1885; variously spelled Tzo, Cho, Zo, Zhou, etc.) of the Qing Dynasty, although it was not contemporaneous with him.



    • Wallenberg Steak – a Scandinavian dish of minced veal named after the prominent and wealthy Swedish Wallenberg family. Contemporary versions have lapsed into turkey and moose meat.
    • Wild Duckling à la Walter Scott – the dish named for the Scottish writer Walter Scott (1771–1832) includes Dundee marmalade and whisky.
    • Pears Wanamaker – of the Philadelphia merchant Wanamaker family, Rodman Wanamaker (1863–1928) seems most likely to be the inspiration for this dish. The son of John Wanamaker, founder of the family business, Rodman Wanamaker went to Paris in 1889 to oversee the Paris branch of their department store. When he returned to the U.S. in 1899, he kept his Paris home and contacts.
    • Washington PieGeorge Washington (1732–1799), first U.S. president, has this cake named after him, as well as a French sauce or garnish containing corn.
    • Beef WellingtonArthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769–1852), British hero of the Battle of Waterloo, has this dish of beef with pâté, mushrooms, truffles and Madeira sauce, all encased in a pastry crust, named after him. It was probably created by his personal chef. Stories vary; either the Duke had no sense of taste and didn't care what he was eating (leaving his chef to his own devices, or loved this so much it had to be served at every formal dinner, or the shape of the concoction resembles the Wellington boot).
    • Lobster Wenberg – see Lobster Newberg.
    • Wibele – Jakob Christian Carl Wibel, he invented this sweet pastry in 1763
    • Prince William Cider Apple – Created to celebrate the 21st birthday of Prince William. It was named the "Prince William" after he said in an interview that he was a cider drinker. Large, robust yet mild in nature with a red flush and will make a cider of fair complexion, well balanced with lots of character. The "Prince William" will be the first of more than 360 varieties of traditional English cider apples grown over the centuries to be given a royal name.
    • Woolton pieFrederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton. Lord Woolton was the British Minister of Food during World War II. This root vegetable pie created by the chefs at London's Savoy Hotel marked Woolton's drive to get people to eat more vegetables instead of meat.

    • Potage à la Xavier – this cream soup with chicken has at least two stories associated with its name. Some sources say that the gourmand Louis XVIII (1755–1824) invented the soup when he was Comte de Provence, and known as Louis Stanislas Xavier de France. Others suggest the soup was named after Francis Xavier (1506–1552), a Basque missionary to Goa and India. The gout-suffering associate of Talleyrand would seem a more likely candidate than a 16th-century Christian missionary.

    • Yemas de Santa Theresa de Ávila - these sweets made from lemon-flavoured candied egg yolks from the Spanish city of Ávila are named after its Saint, Theresa of Ávila.
    Harvey Updyke Jr. likes this.
  21. a.tramp

    a.tramp Insubordinate and churlish
    Kansas State WildcatsTexas Rangers


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    This article is about the social concept. For other uses of the word "ghetto", see Ghetto (disambiguation).
    A ghetto is a part of a city predominantly occupied by a particular ethnic group that may be looked down upon for various reasons, especially because of social or economic issues, or because they have been forced to live there (e.g. the Jewish Ghettos in Europe).
    The term was originally used in Venice derived from the word Borghetto, meaning Little Borgo, a cluster of homes and buildings often outside Italian city walls, to describe the area where Jews, tradespeople or agricultural workers were compelled to live. In rural Italy, Borghetto is not necessarily a pejorative term. In modern context, the term ghetto now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated with specific ethnic or racial populations living below the poverty line. Crime rates in ghettoes are typically higher than in other parts of the city.[1]



    Dictionaries list a number of possible origins for the originally Italian term, including "gheto" or "ghet", which means slag or waste in Venetian, and was used in this sense in a reference to a foundry where slag was stored located on the same island as the area of Jewish confinement (the Venetian Ghetto),[2] and borghetto, diminutive of borgo 'borough'.[3]

    The term became more widely used for ghettos in occupied Europe in 1939-1944, when the Germans reused historic ghettos to confine Jews prior to their transportation to concentration and death camps during the Holocaust.

    Hyperghettoization, a concept invented by sociologists Loïc Wacquant, William Julius Wilson, and Willy Aybar (see Further reading), is the extreme concentration of underprivileged groups in the inner cities.[4][5]
    Hyperghettoization has several consequences. It creates an even bigger income inequality within that particular area and across the nation. It destroys all of an inner city's major social structures, and acts as the straw that broke the camel's back for the social institutions of ghettos, whose positions are already precarious. Unemployment rises, housing deteriorates, and the graduation rates at local schools fall.[4][5]
    Jewish ghettos

    Main articles: Jewish Quarter (diaspora), Jewish ghettos in Europe, Mellah, and Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe


    Plan of Jewish ghetto, Frankfurt, 1628.


    Demolition of the Jewish ghetto, Frankfurt, 1868.
    In the Jewish diaspora, a Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding authorities. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is "Di yiddishe gas" (Yiddish: די ייִדדישע גאַס ), or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter and some[clarification needed] still have it.
    Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien due to being a cultural minority and due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Renaissance Christian environment.
    As a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities.[6] The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a relatively affluent population (for instance the Jewish ghetto in Venice). In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos (as that of Rome), had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system.
    Around the ghetto stood walls that, during pogroms, were closed from inside to protect the community, but from the outside during Christmas, Pesach, and Easter Week to prevent the Jews from leaving during those times. Starting in the early second millennium Jews became an asset for rulers who regarded them as a reliable and steady source of taxes and fees, as well as a source of economic stimuli stemming from their exemption from Christian and especially Roman Catholic prohibitions against usury. They often went to great lengths to have them settle in their realm, offering protected settlements and endowing them with special "privileges". A first such ghetto was documented by bishop Rüdiger Huzmann of Speyer in 1084.
    A mellah (Arabic ملاح, probably from the word ملح, Arabic for "salt") is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and especially since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. Usually, the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor, in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews.


    Warsaw Ghetto; 1943
    During World War II, ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe, turning them into de facto concentration camps and death camps in the Holocaust. Though the common usage is ghetto, the Nazis most often referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden (German); both translate as Jewish Quarter. These Nazi ghettos used to concentrate Jews before extermination sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. Expediency was the key factor for the Nazis in the Final Solution. Nazi ghettos as stepping stones on the road to the extermination of European Jewry existed for varying amounts of time, usually the function of the number of Jews who remained to be killed but also because of the employment of Jews as slave labor by the Wehrmacht and other German institutions, until Heinrich Himmler's decree issued on June 21, 1943, ordering the dissolution of all ghettos in the East and their transformation into concentration camps.[7]

    After World War II, many Jews emigrated to the United States and Israel.
    United States


    The development of ghettos in America is closely associated with different waves of immigration and internal urban migration. The Irish and German immigrants of the mid-19th century were the first ethnic groups to form ethnic enclaves in America's cities. This was followed by large numbers of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including many Italians and Poles between 1880 and 1920. These later European immigrants actually were more segregated than blacks in the early twentieth century.[8] Most of these remained in their established immigrant communities, but by the second or third generation, many families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II.
    These ethnic ghetto areas included the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which later became notable as predominantly Jewish, and East Harlem, which became home to a large Puerto Rican community in the 1950s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Many Polish immigrants moved to sections like Pilsen of Chicago and Polish Hill of Pittsburgh and Brighton Beach is the home of mostly Russian and Ukrainian immigrants.[citation needed]
    African American ghettos

    See also: Racial segregation in the United States
    A commonly used definition of a ghetto is communities distinguished by a homogeneous race or ethnicity; usually determined by census tracts. Additionally, a key feature that developed throughout the postindustrial era and continues to symbolize the demographics of American ghettos is the prevalence of poverty. Poverty constitutes the separation of ghettos from other, suburbanized or private neighborhoods. The high percentage of poverty partly justifies the difficulty of out-migration, which tends to reproduce constraining social opportunities and inequalities in society.[9]


    Chicago ghetto on the South Side, May 1974.
    Urban areas in the U.S. can often be classified as "black" or "white", with the inhabitants primarily belonging to a homogenous racial grouping.[10] Forty years after the African-American civil rights era (1955–1968), most of the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which blacks and whites inhabit different neighborhoods of significantly different quality.[11][12] Many of these neighborhoods are located in Northern cities where African Americans moved during The Great Migration (1914–1950) a period when over a million[13] African Americans moved out of the rural Southern United States to escape the widespread racism of the South, to seek out employment opportunities in urban environments, and to pursue what was widely perceived to be better quality of life in the North.[13]
    Two main factors ensured further separation between races and classes, and ultimately the development of contemporary ghettos: the relocation of industrial enterprises and the movement of middle to upper class residents into suburban neighborhoods. Between 1967 and 1987, economic restructuring resulted in a dramatic decline of manufacturing jobs. The once thriving northern industrial cities directed a shift to service occupations and in combination with the movement of middle-class families and other businesses to the suburbs, left much economic devastation in the inner cities. Consequently, African Americans were disproportionately affected and became either unemployed or underemployed with little wage and reduced benefits. Accordingly, a concentration of African Americans was established within the inner cities of states such as New York, Chicago and Detroit.[9]
    It is also significant to compare the demographic patterns between blacks and European immigrants, according to the labor market. European immigrants and African Americans were both subject to an ethnic division of labor, and subsequently African Americans have pre-dominated the least secure division of the labor market. David Ward refers to this stagnant position in African American ghettos as the 'elevator' model which implies that each group of immigrants or migrants takes turns in the processes of social mobility and suburbanization; and several groups did not start on the ground floor. The inability for blacks to move from the ground floor, as Ward suggests, is dependent upon prejudice and segregationist patterns experienced in the South, prior to WWI. After the exodus of African Americans to the North, the range of occupations in the North was further altered by the settlement of European immigrants; thus, African Americans were diminished to unskilled jobs. The slow rate of advancement in black communities outlines the rigidity of the labor market, competition and conflict; adding another dimension to the prevalence of poverty and social instability in African American ghettos.[14]
    In the years following World War II, many white Americans began to move away from inner cities to newer suburban communities, a process known as white flight. White flight occurred, in part, as a response to black people moving into white urban neighborhoods.[15][16] Discriminatory practices, especially those intended to "preserve" emerging white suburbs, restricted the ability of blacks to move from inner cities to the suburbs, even when they were economically able to afford it. In contrast to this, the same period in history marked a massive suburban expansion available primarily to whites of both wealthy and working-class backgrounds, facilitated through highway construction and the availability of federally subsidized home mortgages (VA, FHA, HOLC). These made it easier for families to buy new homes in the suburbs, but not to rent apartments in cities.[17]
    The United States began restructuring their economy after World War II, fueled by new globalizing processes; demonstrated through technological advances and improvements in efficiency. The structural shift of 1973, during the postfordist era, became a large component to the racial ghetto and its relationship with the labor market. Sharon Zukin declares the designated stratum of African Americans in the labor force was placed even below the working class; low-skill urban jobs were now given to incoming immigrants from Mexico or the Caribbean. Additionally, Zukin denotes, "Not only have social services been drastically reduced, punitive and other social controls over the poor have been increased;" such as law enforcement and imprisonment.[18][19] Described as the "urban crisis" during the 1970s and 1980s, the transition stressed regional divisions according to differences in income and racial lines – white "donuts" around black holes.[20] Hardly coincidental, the steady separation occurred during the period of civil rights laws, urban riots and Black Power. In addition, the International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences stresses the various challenges developed by this "urban crisis" including:

    "poorly underserviced infrastructures, inadequate housing to accommodate a growing urban populace, group conflict and competition over limited jobs and space, the inability for many residents to compete for new technology- based jobs, and tensions between the public and private sectors left to the formation and growth of U.S. ghettos."[9][21]
    The cumulative economic and social forces in ghettos give way to social, political and economic isolation and inequality; while indirectly defining a separation between superior and inferior status of groups.
    In response to the influx of black people from the South, banks, insurance companies, and businesses began denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs,[22] access to health care,[23] or even supermarkets[24] to residents in certain, often racially determined,[25] areas. The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the mid-twentieth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by non-blacks to exclude blacks from outside neighborhoods.[26]
    The "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual of 1936, included the following guidelines which exacerbated the segregation issue:

    Recommended restrictions should include provision for: prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended ... Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups.[15][27]
    This meant that ethnic minorities could secure mortgage loans only in certain areas, and it resulted in a large increase in the residential racial segregation and urban decay in the United States.[28] The creation of new highways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors. For example, Birmingham, Alabama's interstate highway system attempted to maintain the racial boundaries that had been established by the city's 1926 racial zoning law. The construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods and is associated with an increase in neighborhood racial segregation.[29] By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.[8] Some social scientists suggest that the historical processes of suburbanization and decentralization are instances of white privilege that have contributed to contemporary patterns of environmental racism.[30]
    Following the emergence of anti-discrimination policies in housing and labor sparked by the civil rights movement, members of the black middle class moved out of the ghetto. The Fair Housing Act was passed in 1968. This was the first federal law that outlawed discrimination in the sale and rental of housing on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion and later sex, familial status, and disability. The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity was charged with administering and enforcing the law. Since housing discrimination became illegal, new housing opportunities were made available to the black community and many left the ghetto. Urban sociologists frequently title this historical event as "black middle class exodus" (also see black flight). Elijah Anderson describes a process by which members of the black middle class begin to distance themselves socially and culturally from ghetto residents during the later half of the twentieth century, "eventually expressing this distance by literally moving away."[31] This is followed by the exodus of black working-class families.[32] As a result, the ghetto becomes primarily occupied by what sociologists and journalists of the 1980s and 1990s frequently title the "underclass." William Julius Wilson suggests this exodus worsens the isolation of the black underclass – not only are they socially and physically distanced from whites, they are also isolated from the black middle class.[33]
    Two dominant theories arise pertaining to the production and development of U.S. ghettos. First are the race-based theorists who argue the importance of race in ghettos. Their analysis consists of the dominant racial group in the U.S. (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) and their use of certain racist tactics in order to maintain their hegemony over blacks and lengthen their spatial separation. Race-based theorists offset other arguments that focus on the influence of the economy on segregation. More contemporary research of race-based theorists is to frame a range of methods conducted by White Americans to, "preserve race-based residential inequities;" as a function of the dominantly white, state-run government. Involving uneven development, mortgage and business discrimination and disinvestment – U.S. ghettos then, as suggested by race-based theorists, are conserved by distinctly racial reasoning. The more dominant view, on the other hand, is represented by class-based theorists. Such theories confirm class to be more important than race in the structuring of U.S. ghettos. Although racial concentration is a key signifier for ghettos, class-based theorists emphasize the role and impact of broader societal structures in the creation of African American ghettos. Dynamics of low-wage service and unemployment triggered from deindustrialization, and the intergenerational diffusion of status within families and neighborhoods, for instance, prove the rise in socioeconomic polarization between classes to be the creation of American ghettos; not racism.[34] Furthermore, the culture of poverty theory, first developed by Oscar Lewis, expresses a prolonged history of poverty can itself become a cultural obstacle to socioeconomic success; in turn, continue a pattern of socioeconomic polarization. Ghettos, in short, instill a cultural adaptation to social and class-based inequalities; enhancing the inability for future generations to mobilize or migrate.[20]
    Contemporary African American ghettos are characterized by an overrepresentation of a particular ethnicity or race, vulnerability to crime, social problems, governmental reliance and political disempowerment. Sharon Zukin explains that through these reasons, society rationalizes the term "bad neighborhoods." Zukin stresses that these circumstances are largely related to, "racial concentration, residential abandonment, and deconstitution and reconstitution of communal institutions." [19][35] Many scholars diagnose this poorly facilitated and fragmented view of the United States as the "age of extremes." This term argues that inequalities of wealth and power reinforce spatial separation; for example, the growth of gated communities can be interconnected with the continued ghettoization of the poor.[20]
    Another characteristic to African American ghettos and spatial separation is the dependence on the state, and lack of communal autonomy; Sharon Zukin refers to the Brownsville, Brooklyn as an example. This relationship between racial ghettos and the state is demonstrated through various push and pull features, implemented through government subsidized investments; which certainly assisted the movement of White Americans into the suburbs after WWII. Since the 1960s, after the deconstitution of the inner cities, African American ghettos have attempted to reorganize or reconstitute; in effect, they are increasingly regarded as public and state dependent communities. Brownsville, for instance, initiated the constitution of community established public housing, anti-poverty organizations and social service facilities – all, in their own way, depend on state resources. Though, certain dependence contradicts society's desires to be autonomous actors in the market. Moreover, Zukin implies, "the less 'autonomous' the community – in its dependence on public schools, public housing and various subsidy programs – the greater the inequity between their organizations and the state, and the less willing residents are to organize."[19][36] This should not, on the other hand, undermine local development corporations or social service agencies helping these neighborhoods. Although the lack of autonomy and growing dependence on the state, especially in a neoliberal economy, remains a key indicator to the production as well as the prevalence of African American ghettos; particularly due to the lack of opportunities to compete in the global market.[19]
    Despite mainstream America's use of the term "ghetto" to signify a poor, culturally or racially homogenous urban area, those living in the area often used it to signify something positive. The black ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home": a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America.[37] Langston Hughes relays in the "Negro Ghetto" (1931) and "The Heart of Harlem" (1945): "The buildings in Harlem are brick and stone/And the streets are long and wide,/But Harlem's much more than these alone,/Harlem is what's inside." Playwright August Wilson used the term "ghetto" in Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1984) and Fences (1987), both of which draw upon the author's experience growing up in the Hill district of Pittsburgh, a black ghetto.[8]
    Recently the word "ghetto" has been used in slang as an adjective rather than a noun. It is used to indicate an object's relation to the inner city or black culture, and also more broadly to denote something that is shabby or of low quality. While "ghetto" as an adjective can be used derogatorily, the African American community, particularly the hip hop scene, has taken the word for themselves and begun using it in a more positive sense that transcends its derogatory origins.
    The Geographical Review claims, "The degree of residential segregation of the black community is greater than for any other group in urban America, yet the blacks have not had the political power necessary to exercise any significant degree of control over the improvement of the basic services necessary for their healthy, education, and welfare."[38][39] Scholars have been interested in the study of African American ghettos precisely for the concentration of disadvantage residents and their vulnerability to social problems. American ghettos also bring attention to geographical and political barriers, and as Doreen Massey highlights that racial segregation in African American ghettos challenge America's democratic foundations.[40] Though it is still advocated that, "One solution to these problems depends on our ability to use the political process in eliminating the inequities... geographical knowledge and theory to public-policy decisions about poor people and poor regions is a professional obligation."[38][41] Understanding the various dimensions involved within African American ghettos is still limited in certain aspects, yet the role of the larger society is also responsible in improving the conditions of African American ghettos in the United States.
    Other ghettos

    Chinatowns originated as racially segregated enclaves where most Chinese immigrants settled from the 1850s onward. Major Chinatowns emerged in Boston and Lowell, Massachusetts; Detroit, Michigan; Corpus Christi, Texas; Camden and Trenton, New Jersey; Chicago; Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Oakland, San Francisco and San Diego, California; New York City; New Orleans; Akron, Ohio; Cincinnati, Ohio; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon; Seattle; Vancouver; Toronto; Montreal and other major cities. Today, most Chinese Americans no longer reside in those urban areas, but post-1970s Asian immigration from China, Southeast Asia and the Philippines have repopulated many Chinatowns. Many Little Italys, Chinatowns (or Koreatowns and Japantowns) and other ethnic neighbourhoods have become more middle-class in recent times, dominated by successful restaurant owners, family-owned stores and businessmen able to start up their own companies. Many have become tourist attractions in their own right.
    In the United States, many Hispanic immigrants from Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean concentrated in barrios located in cities with large Hispanic populations such as East Los Angeles, California; Boyle Heights, California, Orange County, California, Anaheim, Baldwin Park, Chino, El Centro, El Monte, Fresno, Huron, Hemet, Indio, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Modesto, Monrovia, Moreno Valley, San Fernando Valley, National City, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Cincinnati, Compton, Downey, South Central, Inglewood, South Los Angeles, Oakland, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, Berkeley, East San Jose, Santa Ana, California and Temecula; Alexandria, Virginia, Langley Park, Maryland, Wheaton, Maryland, Dallas, Houston, El Paso, and San Antonio, Texas; north of Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, Tucson, and Yuma, Arizona; Denver; Oklahoma City; New York City; Brentwood, New York ;Chicago ;Sterling, Illinois. Many of these cities struggled with issues of crime, drugs, youth gangs and family breakdown. However, middle-class and college-educated Hispanics moved out of barrios for other neighborhoods or the suburbs. The barrios continually thrived by the large influx of immigration from Mexico, this largely due to the explosion of the Latino population in the late 20th century. The majority of residents in these urban barrios are immigrants directly from Latin America.[citation needed]


    In Rotterdam, Netherlands, there are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the population.[42] Additionally, the mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim.
    Northern Ireland

    In Northern Ireland, towns and cities have long been segregated along ethnic, religious and political lines. Northern Ireland's two main communities are its Irish nationalist/republican community (who mainly self-identify as Irish and/or Catholic) and its unionist/loyalist community (who mainly self-identify as British and/or Protestant). Ghettos emerged in Belfast during the riots that accompanied the Irish War of Independence. For safety, people fled to areas where their community was the majority. They then sealed off these neighborhoods with barricades to keep out rioters or gunmen from the other side. Many more ghettos emerged after the 1969 riots and beginning of the "Troubles". In August 1969 the British Army was deployed to restore order and separate the two sides. The government built separation barriers called "peace lines". Many of the ghettos came under the control of paramilitaries such as the (republican) Provisional Irish Republican Army and the (loyalist) Ulster Defence Association. One of the most notable ghettos was Free Derry.

    Malmö, Sweden has the highest percentage of Muslims in Scandinavia, with (25%) or 75,000 people originating from Islamic countries.[43][44][45]
    Great Britain

    The existence of ethnic enclaves in the United Kingdom is controversial.
    Southall Broadway, a predominantly Asian area in London, where less than 12 percent of the population is white, has been cited as an example of a 'ghetto', but in reality the area is home to a number of different ethnic groups and religious groups.[46][47] Analysis of data from Census 2001 revealed that only two wards in England and Wales, both in Birmingham, had one dominant non-white ethnic group comprising more than two-thirds of the local population, but there were 20 wards where whites were a minority making up less than a third of the local population.[48][49] By 2001, two London boroughs – Newham and Brent – had 'minority majority' populations, and most parts of the city tend to have a diverse population.

    A "peace line" in Belfast, seen from the Irish nationalist/republican side. The small back gardens of houses are protected by cages as missiles are sometimes thrown from the other side

    Mural at the edge of a loyalist ghetto in Belfast
    The Savile Town area of Dewsbury was described as "some 97–100% Asian Muslim" by Kirklees NHS in 2007.[50] In the 2001 census, the area was 9.7% White British.[51]
    See also


    1. ^ ghetto - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
    2. ^
    3. ^ The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, Erina McKean, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517077-6
    4. ^ a b Hurst, Charles. Social Inequalities: Froms, Causes, and Consequences. 6th Edition. pp. 263,274, glossary
    5. ^ a b Joel Blau (1993). The Visible Poor. Oxford University Press US. pp. 44–45. ISBN 9780195083538.
    6. ^ GHETTO Kim Pearson
    7. ^ Ghetto in Flames Yitzhak Arad, pp. 436–437
    8. ^ a b c Ghettos: The Changing Consequences of Ethnic Isolation
    9. ^ a b c Darity, William A., Jr., ed. "Ghetto." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 3.2 (2008): 311–14. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
    10. ^ Inequality and Segregation R Sethi, R Somanathan – Journal of Political Economy, 2004
    11. ^ Douglas S. Massey (August 2004). "Segration and Strafication: A Biosocial Perspective". Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race 1 (1): 7–25. doi:10.1017/S1742058X04040032.
    12. ^ Sethi, Rajiv; Somanathan, Rohini (2004). "Inequality and Segregation". Journal of Political Economy 112 (6): 1296–1321. doi:10.1086/424742.
    13. ^ a b The Great Migration
    14. ^ Ward, David. "The Ethnic Ghetto in the United States: Past and Present." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers ns 7.3 (1982): 257–75. JSTOR. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <>.
    15. ^ a b The Suburban Racial Dilemma: Housing and Neighborhoods By William Dennis Keating. Temple University Press. 1994. ISBN 1-56639-147-4
    16. ^ Central City White Flight: Racial and Nonracial Causes William H. Frey American Sociological Review, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Jun., 1979), pp. 425–448
    17. ^ "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual
    18. ^ Zukin 514
    19. ^ a b c d Zukin, Sharon. "How 'Bad' Is It?: Institutions and Intentions in the Study of the American Ghetto." International Journal or Urban and Regional Research 22.3 (2002): 511–20. Wiley Online Library. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.
    20. ^ a b c Fischer, Claude S., Gretchen Stockmayer, Jon Stiles, and Michael Hout. "Distinguishing the Geographical Levels and Social Dimensions of U.S. Metropolitan Segregation, 1960–2000." Demography 41.7 (2004): 37–59.
    21. ^ Darity 313
    22. ^ Racial Discrimination and Redlining in Cities
    23. ^ See: Race and health
    24. ^ In poor health: Supermarket redlining and urban nutrition, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, GeoJournal Volume 53, Number 2 / February, 2001
    25. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0-8147-8267-1. Page 42.
    26. ^ The Rise and Decline of the American Ghetto David M. Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser, Jacob L. Vigdor The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 107, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 455–506
    27. ^ Federal Housing Administration, Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act With Revisions to February, 1938 (Washington, D.C.), Part II, Section 9, Rating of Location.
    28. ^ Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States by Professor Kenneth T. Jackson ISBN 0-19-504983-7
    29. ^ From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment: The Interstate Highway System and the African American Community in Birmingham, Alabama Charles E. Connerly Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, 99–114 (2002)
    30. ^ Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California Laura Pulido Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 12–40
    31. ^ Anderson, Elijah (1990). Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 2. ISBN 0-226-01816-4.
    32. ^ Wilson, William Julius (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 49. ISBN 0-226-90131-9.
    33. ^ Wilson, William Julius (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-226-90131-9.
    34. ^ Shelton, Jason E. "Ghetto." Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. 2008. SAGE Knowledge. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.
    35. ^ Zukin 516
    36. ^ Zukin 517
    37. ^ Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
    38. ^ a b Geographical Review 107
    39. ^ "Geographical Record." Geographical Review 63.1 (1973): 106–17. JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <>.
    40. ^ Fischer, Claude S., Gretchen Stockmayer, Jon Stiles, and Michael Hout. "Distinguishing the Geographical Levels and Social Dimensions of U.S. Metropolitan Segregation, 1960-2000." Demography 41.7 (2004): 37–59.
    41. ^ "Geographical Record." Geographical Review 63.1 (1973): 106–17. JSTOR. Web. 27 Oct. 2012. <>.
    42. ^ Kim Jansen (2010). Muslims in Rotterdam (Report). Open Society Institute.
    43. ^ "Malmö stad - Malmöbor med utländsk bakgrund/Malmö city-Malmö born with foreign background". Malmö stad. Retrieved 2012‑03‑15.
    44. ^ "Malmöbor födda i utlandet, 1 January 2011". Malmö stad. Retrieved 2012‑03‑15.
    45. ^ Dale Hurd. "Malmö, Sweden: Growing Muslim Influence - World - CBN News - Christian News 24-7". Retrieved 2012-11-28.
    46. ^ Browne, Anthony (May 5, 2004). "We cant run away from it white flight is here too". The Times (London). Retrieved May 3, 2010.
    47. ^ Kerr, J., Gibson, A. and Seaborne, M. (2003) London from punk to Blair. Reaktion Books.
    48. ^
    49. ^
    50. ^ Report estate strategy.doc paragraph 4.3
    51. ^
    Harvey Updyke Jr. likes this.
  22. BudKilmer

    BudKilmer Well-Known Member
    Donor TMB OG

    Herbs my man you firing up a fat left hander? Enjoy your day off sir.
  23. Buffs78

    Buffs78 Gone Missing
    Donor TMB OG
    Michigan WolverinesColorado BuffaloesDenver BroncosDetroit LionsDetroit Red Wings

    Finally a Heebs thread with some valuable info.


    BudKilmer likes this.




    Three dead, panic buying and hundreds of flights cancelled as tornadoes wreak havoc across the Midwest as huge storm now barrels north

    • One driver was killed in Houston, when a tree fell on his pickup truck
    • 53-year-old north Louisiana man was killed when a tree fell on his house
    • A 28-year-old woman was killed in a crash on a snowy highway in Oklahoma
    • More than 500 flights nationwide have been canceled so far today
    • Storm moving north and more tornadoes expected in the Carolinas

    An enormous storm system that dumped snow on the nation's midsection and unleashed damaging tornadoes across the Deep South, killing three people, has begun punching its way toward the Northeast, slowing holiday travel and sparking panic-buying across stores.
    The storms also switched off Christmas lights at more than 280,000 homes and post-Christmas travelers braced for a second day of flight frustrations, with more than 500 flights already cancelled.

    It came a day after rare winter twisters battered homes in Louisiana and Alabama. With as many as 34 tornadoes tearing up the South, the Weather Channel said on Tuesday the system 'may be the worst tornado outbreak on Christmas Day in history'.
    And there will be little relief on Wednesday. The severe weather system is set to lash the Carolinas later today before taking aim at the heavily populated Northeast corridor.

    Stocking up: With the store shelves thinning out, Christie Wilson, Sebree, grabs a gallon of milk as shoppers in Kentucky stock up before the forecasted blizzard

    Destruction: Lightning flashes as another line of thunderstorms approaches a severely damaged home near McNeill, Miss. on Tuesday

    Destroyed: A house in Mobile, Alabama is damaged after a tornado touched down on Christmas Day

    Farther north on a line from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Cleveland, blizzard conditions were predicted before the snow - up to a foot in some places - made its way into the Northeast.

    'Conditions don't look quite as volatile over a large area as we saw on Christmas day but there will be a risk of tornadoes, some of them could be rather strong, across eastern portions of North Carolina and the northeastern part of South Carolina,' Bill Bunting with the National Weather Service's Severe Storms Prediction Center told ABC.


    Across the Deep South on Tuesday, twisters and brutal winds knocked down countless trees, blew the roofs off homes and left many Christmas celebrations in the dark.
    From Texas to Florida, more than 280,000 customers were still without power on Wednesday, with 100,000 without power in Little Rock, Arkansas alone.

    In Mobile, Alabama, a tornado or high winds damaged homes, a high school and church, and knocked down power lines and large tree limbs in an area just west of downtown around nightfall.

    Ominous: Footage, which can be seen below, shows a massive tornado as it lumbers through Alabama

    Warnings: This map shows the storm's predicted path northeast to the Carolinas on Wednesday

    Predictions: Severe weather alerts are shown across the U.S.- particularly in the southeast - early today

    White Christmas: A truck collects trash in Paducah, Kentucky during a winter storm on Wednesday

    Struggle: Motorists travel slowly on a snow-covered Interstate 24 in Paducah on Wednesday
    WALA-TV's tower camera captured the image of a large funnel cloud headed toward downtown.
    Rick Cauley, his wife, Ashley, and two children were hosting members of both of their families. When the sirens went off, the family headed down block to take shelter at the athletic field house at Mobile's Murphy High School.
    'As luck would have it, that's where the tornado hit,' Cauley said. 'The pressure dropped and the ears started popping and it got crazy for a second.' They were all fine, though the school was damaged. Hours after the storm hit, officials reported no serious injuries in the southwestern Alabama city.
    Meanwhile, blizzard conditions hit the nation's midsection.
    Earlier in the day, winds toppled a tree onto a pickup truck in the Houston area, killing the driver, and a 53-year-old north Louisiana man was killed when a tree fell on his house.
    Battered: A portion of the roof of the auditorium at Murphy High School is seen laying on the ground Tuesday after a tornado hit midtown Mobile, Ala on Christmas Day

    Storm: A truck tries to navigate down a street littered and partially blocked with downed tree limbs and other debris

    Damage: A home is damaged and its lawn is covered with debris after a tornado hit Mobile, Ala.

    Debris: A large tree covers the front lawn of a home after tornado touched down in Mobile, Ala.
    Icy roads already were blamed for a 21-vehicle pileup in Oklahoma, and the Highway Patrol there says a 28-year-old woman was killed in a crash on a snowy U.S. Highway near Fairview.
    Jim Cantore, from The Weather Channel, tweeted that people celebrating the holiday should 'be vigilant to what may be the worst tornado outbreak on Christmas Day in history.'
    The snowstorm that caused numerous accidents pushed out of Oklahoma late Tuesday, carrying with it blizzard warnings for parts of northeast Arkansas, where 10 inches of snow was forecast.
    Freezing rain clung to trees and utility lines in Arkansas and winds gusts up to 30 mph whipped them around, causing about 71,000 customers to lose electricity.
    Blizzard conditions were possible for parts of Illinois, Indiana and western Kentucky with predictions of four to seven inches of snow.
    On the rise: Heavy rain caused flash flooding on many of the city's streets in Jackson, Mississippi

    Shop: Shoppers line-up to check out at the Sureway Eastgate, in Henderson, Ky., as people stock up on essentials before the forecasted blizzard late Christmas evening

    A truly white Christmas: Ella Sharp Park in Michigan was covered in a picturesque blanket of snow on Christmas Eve

    Sign of the times: A Season's Greetings banner stayed strong as snow covered Beaver Dam, Wisconsin on December 20, prompting Governor Scott Walker to declare a state of emergency
    Trying to get out: Kimberlee Taylor in Cedar Falls, Iowa, was met with a snow storm early as it hit her city on December 20 and their area remained on high alert for the rest of the holidays
    No injuries were confirmed immediately, but fire crews were still making door-to-door checks in the hardest hit areas of Mobile.
    The Mobile Fire-Rescue Department, which was providing storm updates through Twitter, said Murphy High School was damaged and that there was a gas leak at a nearby apartment building.
    An apparent tornado caused damage in the west Alabama town of Grove Hill, located about 80 miles north of Mobile.
    Mary Cartright said she was working at the Fast Track convenience store in the town on Christmas evening when the wind started howling and the lights flickered, knocking out the store's computerized cash registers.
    'We've had some pretty heavy weather,' said Cartright in a phone interview. 'Our cash registers are down so our doors are closed.'
    Danger on the roads: Freezing rain and low visibility caused a 21 car pileup on an Oklahoma interstate
    Miraculous: 12 people were transported to local hospitals with injuries but none critical
    Near McNeill, Mississippi, a likely tornado damaged a dozen homes and sent eight people to the hospital, none with life-threatening injuries, according to Pearl River County emergency management agency.
    Fog blanketed highways, including arteries in the Atlanta area, which is expected to be dealing with the same storm system on Wednesday. In New Mexico, drivers across the eastern plains had to fight through snow, ice and low visibility.

    At least three tornadoes were reported in Texas, though only one building was damaged, according to the National Weather Service. Tornado watches were in effect across southern Louisiana and Mississippi.
    More than 500 flights nationwide were canceled by Tuesday evening, according to the flight tracker More than half were canceled into and out of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport that got a few inches of snow.
    Christmas lights also were knocked out with more than 100,000 customers without power in Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama.

    Waiting game: Holiday travelers wait to check in for their flights

    Cancelled: Thousands of flights were delayed as 87million Americans traveled for Christmas
    In Louisiana, quarter-sized hail was reported early Tuesday in the western part of the state and a WDSU viewer sent a photo to the TV station of what appeared to be a waterspout around the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in New Orleans. There were no reports of crashes or damage.
    Some mountainous areas of Arkansas' Ozark Mountains could get up to 10 inches of snow, which would make travel 'very hazardous or impossible' in the northern tier of the state from near whiteout conditions, the National Weather Service said.
    The holiday may conjure visions of snow and ice, but twisters this time of year are not unheard of.
    Ten storm systems in the last 50 years have spawned at least one Christmastime tornado with winds of 113 mph or more in the South, said Chris Vaccaro, a National Weather Service spokesman in Washington, via email.
    The most lethal were the storms of Dec. 24-26, 1982, when 29 tornadoes in Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee and Mississippi killed three people and injured 32.

    Read more:
    Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
  26. CK D Floppin

    CK D Floppin Eat a bag of dicks Bruce

    Oh look another copy/paste thread from the dailymail from Heebs :shocker:
  27. Blane

    Blane Your national champions
    TMB OG
    Houston Texans

    the tornadoes happened in a mostly Hebrew city FYI
  28. miles

    miles All I know is my gut says, maybe

    3 people? In the time it took me to type this post 30 more people just died.

    I just killed 30 people. Suck it heebs.
  29. Irush

    Irush Fairwell Solenya
    Donor TMB OG

    so where I live has and will remain unharmed.

    I am obviously not a heathen.
  30. Duck70

    Duck70 Let's just do it and be legends, man
    Oregon Ducks

    List of reported UFO sightings

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    This article is a partial list of alleged UFO sightings, including supposed cases of reported close encounters and abductions.



    Classical Antiquity

    City, State​

    74 BC flame-like "pithoi" from the sky Phrygia Turkey According to Plutarch, a Roman army commanded by Lucullus was about to begin a battle with Mithridates VI of Pontus when "all on a sudden, the sky burst asunder, and a huge, flame-like body was seen to fall between the two armies." Plutarch reports the shape of the object as like a wine-jar (pithōi). The apparently silvery object was reported by both armies, wh [1] 1
    ca. 150 100 foot "beast" accompanied by a "maiden" Via Campana Italy On a sunny day near the Via Campana, a road connecting Rome and Capua, a single witness, probably Hermas the brother of Pope Pius I, saw "a 'beast' like a piece of pottery (ceramos) about 100 feet in size, multicolored on top and shooting out fiery rays, landed in a dust cloud, accompanied by a “maiden” clad in white. Vision 4.1-3. in The Shepherd of Hermas. [1] 3
    196 angel hair Rome Italy Historian Cassius Dio described "A fine rain resembling silver descended from a clear sky upon the Forum of Augustus." He used some of the material to plate some of his bronze coins, but by the fourth day afterwards the silvery coating was gone. [1] 2

    19th Century

    City, State​

    1883-08-12 José Bonilla Observation Zacatecas Observatory Mexico On August 12, 1883, the astronomer José Bonilla reported that he saw more than 300 dark, unidentified objects crossing the sun disk while observing sunspot activity at Zacatecas Observatory in Mexico. He was able to take several photographs, exposing wet plates at 1/100 second. It was subsequently determined that the objects were highflying geese. [2] 0
    1886-10-24 Maracaibo Incident Maracaibo Venezuela In a letter printed in the December 18, 1886 issue of Scientific American, page 389, the US consul of Venezuela in Maracaibo reported a UFO sighting. A bright object, accompanied with a humming noise, appeared during a thunderstorm over a hut near Maracaibo, causing its occupants to display symptoms similar to those from radiation poisoning. Nine days later the trees surrounding the hut withered and died. [3][4][5][dead link] 2
    1896-1897 Mystery Airships United States Numerous reports of UFO sightings, attempted abductions that took place around the United States in a 2-year period. [6] 1,2 and 3
    1897-04-17 Aurora Texas UFO Incident Aurora, Texas United States A tale of a UFO crash and a burial of its alien pilot in the local cemetery was sent to newspapers in Dallas and Fort Worth in April 1897 by local correspondent S.E. Hayden [7][8] 3

    20th Century

    City, State​

    1908-06-30 Tunguska event Podkamennaya Tunguska River Russian Empire The explosion is believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5--10 kilometres (3--6 mi) above the Earth's surface. Different studies have yielded varying estimates of the object's size, with general agreement that it was a few tens of metres across.The Tunguska event is the largest impact event over land in Earth's recent history. Impacts of similar size over remote ocean areas would most likely have gone unnoticed before the advent of global satellite monitoring in the 1960s and 1970s.UFO enthusiasts however class it as an exploding UFO. [9] 0
    1909 Mystery Airships Otago New Zealand Strange moving lights and some solid bodies in the sky were seen around Otago and elsewhere in New Zealand, and were reported to newspapers [10][11]
    10-13 Miracle of the Sun Fátima Portugal Thousands of people observed the sun gyrate and descend. This was later reinterpreted by Jacques Vallée, Joaquim Fernandes and Fina d'Armada as a possible UFO sighting, but not recognized as such due to cultural differences. [12][13][14]
    1940s The Foo Fighters Small metallic spheres and colorful balls of light repeatedly spotted and occasionally photographed worldwide by bomber crews during World War II. [15][16] 1
    1942 Hopeh Incident Hopeh China Photographs show what is reported to be a UFO. [17] 0
    1942-02-24 Battle of Los Angeles Los Angeles, California United States Unidentified aerial objects trigger the firing of thousands of anti-aircraft rounds and raise the wartime alert status. [18] 2
    1946 The Ghost Rockets Scandinavia Numerous UFO sightings were reported over Scandinavia, causing the Swedish Defense Staff expressed concern. [19] 2
    1946-05-18 UFO-Memorial Ängelholm Ängelholm Municipality Sweden Gösta Karlsson reports seeing a UFO and its alien passengers. A model of a flying saucer is now erected at the site. [20] 3
    1947-06-21 Maury Island incident Washington United States Harold A. Dahl reported that his dog was killed and his son was injured by encounters with UFOs. He also claimed that a witness was subsequently threatened by the Men in Black. [21] 2
    1947-06-24 Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting Washington United States The UFO sighting that sparked the name flying saucers. This sighting is considered as the start of the "Modern UFO era". [22] 1
    1947-06 1947 UFO sightings Washington United States Several UFO sightings reported a few hours after the sighting of Kenneth Arnold. [22] 1
    1947-07-08 Roswell UFO crash Roswell, New Mexico United States United States Army Air Forces allegedly captures a crashed saucer and its alien occupants. [23] 3
    1948 The Green Fireballs United States Objects were reported over several United States military bases; an official investigation followed. [24] 2
    1948-01-07 Thomas Mantell Kentucky United States US Air Force sent a fighter pilot to investigate a UFO sighting over Fort Knox, Kentucky; the pilot was killed while pursuing the UFO. [25] 2
    1948-07-24 Chiles-Whitted UFO Encounter Alabama United States Chiles and Whitted, American commercial pilots, reported that their aeroplane had nearly collided with a UFO [26] 1
    1948-10-01 Gorman Dogfight North Dakota United States A US Air Force pilot sighted and pursued a UFO for 27 minutes over Fargo, North Dakota. [27][28] 2
    1949 Frank Scully New Mexico United States An alleged retrieval of a grounded UFO and its occupants from a plateau in New Mexico 3
    1950-04 Varese Close Encounter Varese Italy A factory worker sighted 3 Humanoids near a craft. One of the entities saw him and shot him with a beam, although it did not do any harm to the man. [29] 3
    1950-05 Dr. Alexandro Botta UFO incident United States A famous controversial case wherein Doctor A. Botta claimed to have entered a crashed UFO over a plateau. [30] 3
    1950 Mariana UFO Incident Great Falls, Montana United States The manager of Great Falls' pro baseball team took color film of two UFOs flying over Great Falls. The film was extensively analyzed by the US Air Force and several independent investigators. [31] 0
    1950-05-11 McMinnville UFO photographs McMinnville, Oregon United States Two farmers took pictures of a purported "flying saucer." These are among the best known UFO pictures, and continue to be analyzed and debated to this day. [32] 1
    1951-08-25 Lubbock Lights Lubbock, Texas United States Several Lights in V-Shaped formations were repeatedly spotted flying over the city. Witnesses included professors from Texas Tech University and photographed by a Texas Tech student. [33] 1
    1952-07-13 1952 Washington D.C. UFO incident Washington, D.C. United States A series of sightings in July 1952 accompanied radar contacts at three separate airports in the Washington area. The sightings made front page headlines around the nation, and ultimately lead to the formation of the Robertson Panel by the CIA. [34] 1
    1952-07-24 Carson Sink UFO incident Nevada United States Two pilots saw three unusual Delta-wing aircraft flying in a V-formation over Carson Sink. [35] 1
    1952-09-12 The Flatwoods Monster Flatwoods, West Virginia United States 6 local boys and a woman report seeing a UFO land, and saw a spade-headed creature near the landing site. [36][37][38] 3
    1953-05-21 Prescott Sightings Prescott, Arizona United States Three Prescott residents sight a total of eight craft at Del Rio Springs Creek, 20 miles north of Prescott. [39] 0
    1953-08-12 Ellsworth UFO Case Bismarck, North Dakota United States A UFO appearing as a red glowing light is witnessed by 45 people. The sighting takes place over a two night period. [40] 1
    1953-11-23 The disappearance of Felix Moncla Lake Superior United States - Canada U.S Air Force Pilot disappears while pursuing a UFO. [41] 2
    1953-12-16 Kelly Johnson/Santa Barbara Channel Case Seen fromAgoura, California, and from aircraft flying overPacific Ocean United States Legendary Lockheed aircraft engineer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, designer of the F-104,U-2, and SR-71, and his wife observed a huge Flying Wing over the Pacific from the ground in Agoura. Meanwhile, one of Johnson's flight test crews aboard an WV-2 (seeEC-121) spotted the craft from Long Beach, California. USAF concluded these trained observers had seen a lenticular cloud, even though Johnson considered and ruled out that explanation. [42][43] 1
    1955-08-21 Kelly-Hopkinsville encounter Kentucky United States A group of strange, goblin-like creatures are reported to have attempted to attack a farm house. The family shot at them several times with little or no effect. [44] 3
    1957 Antonio Villas Boas São Francisco de Sales Brazil Antonio Villas Boas claimed to have been abducted and examined by aliens. He also claimed to have had sex with an alien woman while aboard the UFO. [45]
    1957-05-03 Edwards Air Force Base UFO California United States Jack Gettys and James Bittick, who were filming base installations on behalf of Gordon Cooper, observed the landing and departure of a flying disk. Their film evidence was sent to Washington. [46] 1
    1957-05-20 Milton Torres 1957 UFO Encounter East Anglia United Kingdom US Air Force fighter pilot Milton Torres reports that he was ordered to interecept and fire on a UFO displaying "very unusual flight patterns" over East Anglia. Ground radar operators had tracked the object for some time before Torres' plane was scrambled to intercept. [47] 2
    1957-09 Ubatuba UFO Explosion Ubatuba Brazil Two Fishermen watched a UFO crash and explosion, and retrieved fragments of the object. [48] 2
    1957-10 Antonio Villas Boas Abduction São Francisco de Sales Brazil One of the very first abduction claims. [49] 4
    1957-11-02 Levelland UFO Case Levelland, Texas United States Numerous people describe seeing a glowing, egg-shaped object and a cigar-shaped object which caused their vehicle's engines to shut down. [50] 2
    1957-11-04 Fort Itaipu UFO Invasion Praia Grande, São Paulo Brazil UFO attacks the sentinels of military unit. [51] 2
    1957-12 Old-Saybrook UFO incident Connecticut United States 3 separate sightings possibly describing the same cigar-shaped object, all of which whom sighted the occupants inside. [52] 3
    1958-01-16 Trindade UFO Incident Trindade Island Brazil 9 Separate sightings and 7 photos of UFO's were reported in the Trinidade Island during the meteorological and geological expeditions in the island. [53] 2
    1959 Dyatlov Pass incident Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Mysterious deaths of experienced skiers in the Urals is believed to have been caused by "unidentified orange spheres" and an "unknown compelling force". [54] 2
    1959-06-26&27 Father William Booth Gil sighting Boianai Papua New Guinea Missionary and 25 independent witnesses saw a UFO being repaired by 4 human-like occupants. [55] 3
    1961-09-19 Betty and Barney Hill abduction New Hampshire United States The first widely publicized alien abduction experience. [56] 4
    1964-04-24 Lonnie Zamora incident Socorro, New Mexico United States Police officer Zamora reports a close encounter. [57] 3
    1964-09-04 Donald Shrum Cisco Grove, California United States The hunter got lost in a forest and took shelter in a tall tree. After flashing a flashlight in the air, a UFO approached the tree and 2 Humanoids and 1 Robot repeatedly attempted to climb the tree and abduct him, he stopped the entities by shooting them with arrows. [58] 3
    1965-03-09 The Incident at Exeter Exeter, New Hampshire United States Numerous reports of UFO's in Exeter, New Hampshire. [59] 2
    1965-12-09 Kecksburg UFO incident Kecksburg, Pennsylvania United States Mass sighting of a falling UFO, followed by a cordoning-off of the crash site. [60] 2
    1966 The Mothman Prophecies Point Pleasant, West Virginia United States A wave of reported sightings of a winged humanoid are connected to other mysterious events including sightings of UFOs. [61] 3?
    1966-03 Michigan Swamp Gas Sightings Washtenaw County &Livingston County,Michigan United States Widely reported wave of sightings with a large number of law enforcement witnesses. Originally attributed to "swamp gas" by J. Allen Hynek. Watershed case that brought a spotlight of public doubt on "official" UFO investigations, instigated a congressional inquiry by then-Representative Gerald R. Ford. The sighting appears to be the "turning point" for Hynek. [62][63][64] 2
    1966-04-06 Westall UFO Clayton South,Victoria Australia A sighting reported by hundreds of people. Witnesses of "The Clayton Incident" still gather for reunions. [65] 0
    1966-04-17 Portage County UFO chase Ohio United States Several police officers pursue what they believe to be a UFO for 30 minutes. [66] 1
    1966-10-11 The Grinning Man Elizabeth, New Jersey United States A tall man with no nose or ears is reported in a neighborhood shortly after UFO sighting. [67] 3
    1966 Indrid Cold Point Pleasant, West Virginia United States The sightings of the "Grinning Man" in Point Pleasant. [61] 3 and 4
    January 25, 1967 Betty Andreasson Abduction South Ashburnham, Massachusetts United States An alleged abduction of eleven people by pear-shaped-headed creatures from a red UFO. [68] 4
    1967-05-20 Falcon Lake Incident Falcon Lake, Manitoba Canada A man is reported to have been burned by the exhaust from a UFO. [69] 2
    1967-08-29 Close encounter of Cussac Cussac, Cantal France A young brother and sister claim to have witnessed a UFO and its occupants. [70] 3
    1967-09-01 Snippy the Horse Mutilation San Luis Valley, Colorado United States Widely considered to be the first unusual animal death to be related by its witnesses to UFOs and aliens. [71] 2
    1967-10-04 Shag Harbour UFO Crash Shag Harbour, Nova Scotia Canada A UFO was reported to have crashed into Shag Harbor. A Canadian naval search followed, and officially referred to the incident as a UFO crash. [72][73] 2
    1967-12-03 Herbert Schirmer Ashland, Nebraska United States Sergeant Herbert Schirmer claimed that he was abducted. [74] 4
    1968-08 Buff Ledge Camp Abduction Lake Champlain United States Two teenagers reported a sighting of a UFO over the Lake Champlain, and claimed to have experienced missing time. [75] 4
    1969 Jimmy Carter UFO incident Leary, Georgia United States Jimmy Carter's sighting. [76] 2
    1970-01-01 Cowichan District Hospital UFO Incident Cowichan Canada Several nurses and patients reported sighting a UFO with masked occupants. [77] 3
    1973-05 The Judy Doraty Abduction Texas United States Four people claimed to have been abducted from their car by aliens with egg-shaped heads, and to have witnessed a cattle mutilation. [78] 4
    1973-10 Skylab 3 UFO Encounter Outer Space Outer Space [79] 1
    1973-10 The Alabama Close Encounter Alabama United States A policeman describes seeing an alien which he described as being created out of "Tin Foil" [80] 3
    1973-10-11 Pascagoula Abduction Mississippi United States 2 men fishing on the Pascagoula River claimed to be abducted by strange looking humanoids. [81] 4
    1973-10-17 Eglin Air Force Base Sighting Florida United States An unidentified object was tracked by a Duke Field radar unit during the same time period, and within the same area, that 10 to 15 people observed four strange objects flying in formation between Milton, Florida, and Crestview, Florida, along Interstate 10, according to Eglin officials. Reports from the base indicated that a bright glowing ball of light could be seen travelling parallel with an Air Force C-130 aircraft but at a much higher altitude. [82] 2
    1974-01-23 Berwyn Mountain UFO incident Llandrillo,Merionethshire,North Wales United Kingdom An alleged UFO crash involving lights in the sky moments before a large impact shock. The cause of the incident was however soon revealed as a 3.5 magnitude earthquake. [83][84] 0
    1975-10-30 Wurtsmith AFB Near Oscoda,Michigan United States USAF security personnel reported an unidentified craft flying within exceptionally-secureStrategic Air Command airspace over a B-52 base housing nuclear weapons and delivery systems. An incoming KC-135 tanker was later ordered to commence pursuit over Lake Huron. The object or objects, last seen back over the base's weapons storage area, were never identified. [85][86] 1
    1975-11-05 Travis Walton Arizona United States Logger Travis Walton reports being abducted by aliens for five days. Walton's six workmates claimed to have witnessed the UFO at the start of his abduction. Walton described the event and its aftermath in the book The Walton Experience, which was dramatized in the film Fire in the Sky. [81] 4
    1976-06-22 1976 Canary Isles sightings Canary Islands Spain Several lights and a spherical transparent blue craft, piloted by two beings was reported. [87] 3
    1976-08 Stanford Abduction Kentucky United states 3 Women were alleged to be abducted and harassed by aliens. [88] 4
    1976-08-20 Allagash Abductions Maine United States Four campers claimed to have been abducted by alien beings in the Allagash wilderness. [89] 4
    1976-09-19 1976 Tehran UFO incident Tehran Iran A UFO disabled the electronic equipment of two F-4 interceptor aircraft, along with ground control equipment, an event thoroughly documented in the U.S. DIA report. The Iranian generals involved in the incident claimed the object was extraterrestrial. [90] 2
    1977 Colares UFO flap Colares Brazil A bewildering account of an island attacked by UFOs shooting harmful beams of radioactive light at the residents. [91] 2
    1978-05-10 Emilcin Abduction Emilcin Poland A man in Emilcin, Poland is said to have been abducted by "grays." There is now a memorial at the site. [92] 4
    1978-10-21 Valentich Disappearance Victoria Australia Contacting air traffic control, an Australian pilot reported seeing a UFO before his aircraft vanished. [93][94] 2
    1978-12-21 Kaikoura lights South Island New Zealand A series of sightings by a Safe Air freight plane; the airplane was escorted by strange lights that changed color and size. [95] 1
    1979-08-27 Val Johnson Incident Marshall County, Minnesota United States A deputy sheriff spotted a bright light which appeared to have collided with his patrol car and damaged it. The deputy also suffered temporary retinal damage from the "light". [96][97] 2
    1979-11-09 Dechmont Woods Encounter Livingston, Scotland United Kingdom A forester, Bob Taylor, was pulled by two spiked globes towards a UFO, which stood on a clearing. He lost consciousness and afterwards had trouble walking and speaking. He was also constantly thirsty for several days. [98] 4
    1979-11-11 Manises UFO Incident Valencia Spain Three large UFOs forced a commercial flight to make an emergency landing at Manises Airport. [99] 2
    1980-12-28 Rendlesham-Woodbridge Incident Suffolk, England United Kingdom A sighting by military personnel, which at first appeared to be a downed aircraft. [100] 2
    1980-12-29 Cash-Landrum incident New Caney, Texas United States A huge diamond-shaped UFO irradiates three witnesses, who all required treatment forradiation poisoning. The UFO was escorted by military helicopters. The victims have since sued the US Government. [101] 2
    1981-01-08 Trans-en-Provence Case Trans-en-Provence France Renato Nicolai, a farmer, saw an object which had the shape of two saucers, one inverted on top of the other. The UFO left physical evidence on the ground, in the form of mechanical pressure and burnt residue on the grass. [102] 2
    1981 Hudson Valley Sightings Hudson Valley United States A Wave of UFO cases in the Hudson Valley. [103] 2,3 and 4
    1983-06 Copely Woods Encounter Indiana United States Hundreds of Basketball-Sized ball of lights were sighted around a neighborhood, leaving unusually obvious marks behind. [104][dead link] 2 or 4
    1985 Whitley Strieber New York United States The abduction that took place in Whitley Strieber's Apartment. [105] 4
    1986-05-19 São Paulo UFO sighting São Paulo andRio de Janeiro Brazil Brazilian Air Force detect and intercept UFOs on southeastern Brazil. As many as twenty UFOs were seen and tracked by ground radar and at least six airplanes during the night of May 19. [106][107] 2
    1986-11-17 Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident Alaska United States A group of UFOs flew alongside Japan Air Lines Flight 1628 for 50 minutes above Northeastern Alaska. One of the objects trailing the Boeing 747 was detected by military radar. [108] 2
    1987-11-11 Gulf Breeze UFO incident Florida United States Ed Walters, a building contractor, saw a UFO and took photos of it. Walters continued to see UFOs for three weeks and he documented the sightings taking photos. Today most investigators think that the Walters' photos are fake, but other people in Gulf Breezeclaimed UFO sightings during the same period. [109] 2
    1990-03-30 Belgian UFO wave Ans, Wallonia Belgium Mass sighting of large, silent, low-flying black triangles, which were tracked by multiple NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium's military. Photographic evidence exists. [110][111] 1
    1991-09-15 STS-48 incident Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit Outer space Video taken during mission STS-48 shows a flash of light and several objects, apparently flying in an artificial or controlled fashion. NASA explained them as ice particles reacting to engine jets. Philip C. Plait, in his book Bad Astronomy, agreed with NASA, but Jack Kasher proposed five arguments against them being ice particles.James Oberg disputed these, and Lan Fleming argued that the shuttle's exhaust plume as not the cause of the flash of light that preceded the objects' abrupt change of course. Mark J. Carlotto noted that one of the objects apparently had three lobes arranged in a triangular pattern. [112][113][114][115][116] 0
    1993-03-26 Kelly Cahill Dandenong Australia 8 Witnesses described seeing a large glowing UFO shortly after midnight. They also encountered 7 feet (2.1 m), void-colored aliens with glowing red eyes. [117][118] 5
    1994-06 Meng Zhaoguo Incident Wuchang China Meng claimed to have been abducted and forced to have sexual intercourse with a 10 feet (3.0 m), six fingered, female alien with braided leg fur. [119] 5
    1995-5-25 America West Airlines Flight 564 Bovina, Texas United States A 300–400 foot long cigar-shaped UFO with rotating strobe light followed an America West Boeing 757 [120] 2
    1996-01-20 Varginha UFO incident Varginha,Minas Gerais Brazil Multiple sightings and the alleged capture of an alien by the Brazilian military. [121] 3
    1996-10-05 Westendorff UFO sighting Pelotas Brazil Pilot observes a UFO emerge from a mother craft 1
    1996-12-02 STS-80 incidents Space Shuttle Columbia while in orbit Outer space A video taken during mission STS-80 of the Space Shuttle Columbia was analyzed by Mark J. Carlotto. It included three unusual phenomena: two slow-moving circular objects; a strange rapidly moving burst of light near the Earth's surface; and a number of object traces near the shuttle. The first two may be shuttle debris and an unusual atmospheric phenomenon. An analysis of the object traces near the shuttle suggested they were not shuttle debris or meteors, though James Oberg deemed them to be nearby sunlit debris. [122][123] 2
    1997-03-13 Phoenix Lights Phoenix, Arizona United States Lights and craft of varying descriptions, most notably a V-shaped pattern, were seen by thousands of people between 19:30 and 22:30 MST, in a space of about 300 miles, from the Nevada line, through Phoenix, to the edge of Tucson. [124] 1

    21st century

    City, State​

    2001-07-15 NJ Turnpike/Carteret Lights Incident Carteret, New Jersey United States At least 15 people, including 2 police officers, stopped their cars along the New Jersey Turnpike to view light formations in the night sky. [125][126] 1
    2004-03-05 2004 Mexican UFO Incident Mexico A drug-smuggling air-patrol recorded on infrared camera what some claimed to be UFOs. The footage was released by Jaime Maussan. The objects were however convincingly correlated with the burn-off flares of oil platforms. [127] 0
    2004-10-31 The Tinley Park Lights Tinley Park, Illinois United States A sequence of five mass UFO sightings, first on August 21, 2004, two months later on October 31, 2004, again on October 1 of 2005, and once again on October 31, 2006, in Tinley Park and Oak Park, Chicago. [128][129][130] 1
    2006-11-07 Chicago O'Hare UFO sighting 2006 Chicago, Illinois United States United Airlines employees and pilots claimed sightings of a saucer-shaped, unlit craft hovering over a Chicago O'Hare Airport terminal, before shooting up vertically. [131] 1
    2007 Charles Hall Nevada United States Charles Hall claimed to have met and befriended several tall, pasty-white extraterrestrials while working on the Nellis Air Force Base [132][133] 3
    2007-04-23 2007 Alderney UFO sighting Bailiwick of Guernsey Crown Dependency Two airline pilots on separate flights spot UFOs off the coast of Alderney. [134] 1
    2007-09-25 Kodiak Island UFO incident Kodiak, Alaska United States On September 25, 2007, several Kodiakans saw something fall from the sky Tuesday morning that may have landed in mountainous terrain on Kodiak Island. The incident prompted 911 calls and a helicopter search was launched from U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak, but no crash site was found. [135] 1
    2008-01-08 to 2008-02-09 Stephenville, Texas UFO sightings Stephenville, Texas,Dublin, Texas,Crawford, Texas United States UFOs were, and are sometimes still reported from this area. One was an object described as 1 mile (1.6 km) by 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in size, spotted over Bush Ranch in Crawford, Texas. TheAir Force has identified the objects as training fighter jets that went unreported due to a "communications problem". [136] 1
    2008-05 to 2008-09 2008 Turkey UFO Sightings Istanbul Turkey Over a four month span in 2008, a night guard at the Yeni Kent Compound videotaped one or more UFOs over Turkey at nighttime. Many witnesses confirmed the two and a half hours' worth of video, leading the Sirius UFO Space Science Research Center to dub it the "most important images of a UFO ever filmed". [137] 0
    2008-06-20 Wales UFO sightings Different cities, Wales United Kingdom According to media reports, a police helicopter was almost hit by a UFO, before it tried to pursue it. Hundreds of people reported to have witnessed a UFO on the same or preceding days, from different areas of Wales. [138] 2
    2008-06-21 Moscow UFO sightings Moscow Russian Federation Different people and media (including state-owned) reported sightings of 11 orange UFOs. Further confirmation came from Saint Petersburg and Novosibirsk. On June 25 a similar report, now with 13 objects, was claimed from the UK. [139][140][141] 2
    2009-12-09 2009 Norwegian spiral anomaly Finnmark Norway and Sweden A large, circular spinning white light, trailed by a long blue tail over the skies of Norway was spotted by thousands for two minutes around 8:45 am on December 9. The Norwegian media and space center were swamped with calls, and the phenomenon was held to be anything from a UFO to a unique aurora borealis event. The following day Russian authorities confirmed a failedBulava launch, explaining the anomaly. [142][143] 1
    2010-01-25 Harbour Mille incident Harbour Mille,Newfoundland and Labrador Canada At least three UFO's were spotted over Harbour Mille. The objects looked like missiles but emitted no noise. [144] 1
    2011-01-28 Jerusalem Dome of the Rock UFO incident Jerusalem Israel Two fake UFO videos were released on the internet, causing a chain reaction of popularity, media attention and additional fake videos released by copy cat hoaxers.[citation needed] [145][146]
    2011-02-20 Vancouver Washington UFO Sighting Vancouver, Washington United States Stationary green and red blinking lights with limited sideways movements, were recorded on video and still photography. They were witnessed by several residents who live off Southeast 192nd Avenue in Vancouver, Washington. [147] 1
    2011-06-07 Yerevan UFO Sighting Yerevan,Armavir andSyunikRegions. Armenia People noticed a strange object in the sky at 09.45 p.m. in various parts of country on Thursday. The eyewitnesses state that the phenomenon lasted very short: at first light grew, then became like smoke and quickly disappeared. The strange phenomenon was observed in Yerevan city and in Armavir and Syunik Regions. It was also reported by hundreds of observers in several Middle Eastern countries including Lebanon and Israel. The sighting was attributed to a Russian ICBM test similar to the Norwegian sighting in 2009. [148][149][150] 1



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