Oceanography Live Streams - Exploring the Ocean with E/V Nautilus and Okeanos

Discussion in 'The Mainboard' started by Emma, Jun 11, 2015.

  1. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    http://www.nautiluslive.org/

    EVNautilus is a research vessel that is operated by the Ocean Exploration Trust. Nautilus is equipped with the remotely operated vehicles (ROVHercules, Argus, Diana, and Echo.

    Nautilus shares a live feed from the ROVs with Exploration Command Consoles located around the world.

    You are able to join the crew as they explore the depths of the ocean - from deep trenches, oceanic vents, and shipwrecks.

    The crews are fun to listen to and provide great insights into what they're doing and what you're seeing. They bring guests on to discuss the surrounding sights and structures. They are also entertaining and funny, often times joking around and interacting with the viewers who are watching and writing in.

    The streams are in real-time and will be continuing for the rest of the summer into September.
     
    #1 Emma, Jun 11, 2015
    Last edited: Aug 7, 2015
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  2. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    A screenshot of an acorn worm they just encountered.
     
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  3. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Expedition Schedule

    The E/V Nautilus will spend several weeks exploring the Galapagos Rift region. The Galápagos Islands have been instrumental in the establishment of the biological theory of evolution, gaining insights to our knowledge of the chemistry of the Earth’s interior, and understanding the plate tectonic evolution of the eastern Pacific seafloor. In 1835 Charles Darwin visited the islands aboard the HMS Beagle and made fundamental biological and geological observations in the area. E/V Nautilus will return to the area with new tools to explore the undersea part of the islands that were out of Darwin’s view. The main objectives will be to explore the biological diversity and geological structure of the foundation of the Galapagos Islands and the adjacent deep-sea spreading center to the north.

    The discovery of hydrothermal vents and chemosynthetic organisms in the volcanic ridges in the rift in 1977 was a revolutionary discovery in science that changed our understanding of life processes. For the first time scientists found evidence that life could be sustained from chemicals coming out of the Earth’s crust, rather than the light of the sun. Chemosynthetic bacteria, which derive energy from seawater-rock interactions at the vent sites form the base of the food chain for a host of organisms including clams, mussels, and tubeworms. The early studies at the Rose Garden vent site provided the foundation for our understanding the complexities of chemosynthetic communities including details of symbiosis, competition, and displacement. We will revisit this historic site and others in the area.

    The Galapagos archipelago is a group of volcanic islands lying about 900 kms off the coast of Ecuador in the central eastern Pacific Ocean. They have formed as a result of a deep-seated mantle hotspot supplying excess magma to the seafloor in this region. The last recorded eruption occurred in 2009 from the La Cumbre volcano on the island of Fernandina. The Galapagos Rift is an east-west trending spreading center between the Cocos and Nazca plates. Here the Earth’s plates are moving apart at a rate of 5-6 cm per year, creating a 2-4 km wide rift valley in the seafloor.

    In addition to hydrothermal vents, an important habitat for biological communities are the steep volcanic slopes of the Galapagos Islands and nearby seamounts. Deep sea corals (DSC) can be large (in excess of several meters in height) and offer shelter and habitat space for many other associated organisms.

    For this leg of the expedition we will transit from Baltra to an area 1000 nm west of Colima, Mexico to international waters, where there are two sites of interest for seafloor mapping. E/V Nautilus will use its hull-mounted multibeam echosounder to survey each site and create a map to show the acoustically-derived bathymetry of the area.

    Although only about 10% of our world’s oceans have been acoustically mapped, satellites equipped with altimetry sensors have been used to derive the bathymetry of the entire seafloor. The altimeters sense gravity anomalies of the sea surface that can be linked to topography (e.g. dip in the surface of the ocean over a trench). There is a tradeoff between bathymetry derived from altimetry versus shipboard acoustic sensors: multibeams map the seafloor at a high resolution and are accurate, but ships have only mapped about 10% of the seafloor. Whereas there is global coverage of altimetry-derived maps, but the resolution of these maps is low, and the correlation between depth and a gravity anomaly is non-linear (meaning there is more room for error in deriving bathymetry from these measurements).

    Small seamounts are often not resolved using altimetry technology, and can pose a hazard to navigation. In 2005, the USS San Francisco struck an uncharted seamount in the Pacific Ocean, which was indicated in altimetry data. The Navy has identified locations where altimetry data suggests there is a seamount and has requested that these areas be mapped with multibeam sonars.

    This cruise will explore the ocean floor in previously unstudied portions of the California Borderlands, offshore from some of the most tectonically active (as well as densely populated) areas of California, using a combination of high resolution multibeam mapping, sonar surveys and targeted ROV dives.

    The California Borderlands area displays an unusually rugged topography linked to the complex tectonic history of the west coast of the United States including important faults that lie closer to important centers of urban population than the San Andreas Fault. As well as contributing to an improved understanding of the offshore extent of these local geohazards, there will also be an important biological component to our exploration. Wherever active fluid flow has been found along such fault systems in the past, cold seep ecosystems have also been found.

    Nautilus will visit known and several possible cold seeps off San Diego and Santa Monica, associated with gas hydrate dissociation and methane seepage. The team will examine a 3-year-old fin whale carcass to examine the changes that occur over one year to a “whale fall.”

    The final day of the expedition will conduct exploration and high resolution mapping operations at the wreck site of USS Macon within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Macon was a rigid airship, built in 1933 by the US Navy to function as a flying aircraft carrier. The dirigible had four F9C Sparrowhawk planes in internal hangers that it could launch while in flight and these biplanes are still present on the wreck. This expedition will spend a day at the Macon wreck site to document its condition, as it has not been visited since 2006, conduct high resolution mapping of the whole site for photomosaic and microbathymetry maps, and collect a piece of the aluminum frame for corrosion studies.

    The E/V Nautilus will transit up the west coast of the United States to the North East Pacific Time-series Underwater Networked Experiments (NEPTUNE) under sea observatory located off the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The observatory’s infrastructure, an 812 km loop of fiber optic cable connected to instruments, enables scientists to study phenomena through continuous long-term, high temporal resolution observations not afforded by traditional ship-based ocean exploration. By co-locating instruments of different types, researchers can study interactions among geological, chemical, physical, and biological processes that drive the dynamic earth-ocean system. The Nautilus will conduct dual-ship operations with other vessels and use the ROVs to assist Ocean Networks Canada in maintenance of the observatory.
     
    #3 Emma, Jun 11, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 11, 2015
  4. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Highlights from previous expeditions



















     
    #4 Emma, Jun 11, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 19, 2015
  5. * J Y *

    * J Y * TEXAS
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  6. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    The crew is currently 60m away from the hydrothermal vents location. Once they arrive, they expect to see a bloom of oceanic life thriving off the minerals expelled from the vents. Chemosynthetic bacteria form the base of the food chain around these vents, in turn supporting a diversity of organisms - including giant tube worms, clams, limpets and shrimp.
     
  7. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    unidentified creature at the moment

    HD pictures come out after the dive is completed
     
  8. Trip McNeely

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  9. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Back at the Galápagos Islands

    Dive time is at the top of the hour
     
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  10. Tiffin

    Tiffin Florida is a penis.
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    Just now seeing this thread. Neatoscience.
     
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  11. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Got a bit before they reach the floor.

    Dives last 8-12 hours.

    They are going to 3 separate sites today.

    Towards they latter portion of the dive, they will be visiting a recently discovered hydrothermal vent.
     
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  12. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Highlights from their dive two days ago.

    They didn't have luck finding a hydrothermal vent that time around.

    :38 seconds is the odd looking acorn worm previously posted.
     
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  13. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Reached the bottom.
     
  14. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Just taking a vent's temperature 1.5 miles down

    [​IMG]
     
  15. Tiffin

    Tiffin Florida is a penis.
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    Guy is struggling to get the claw to open. Stuck somehow. Immediately went to blaming someone for bending part of it.
     
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  16. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Compared to the previous dive, where they searched over with no luck, this one is showing more potential
     
  17. Tiffin

    Tiffin Florida is a penis.
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    Thought for sure that guy was about to crush that clam.
     
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  18. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    It's like watching a game of Operation
     
    #18 Emma, Jun 14, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 14, 2015
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  19. Noog

    Noog Well-Known Member
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    :chatzy:
     
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  20. Tiffin

    Tiffin Florida is a penis.
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    I'm kinda confused because they've already gotten samples from 2 different spots and that seems to be all the space they have in that little basket/drawer thing.
     
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  21. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    What they are looking for are black smokers (hydrothermal vents)

    [​IMG]

    Vent communities begin at the microscopic level - chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea - that form the base of the food chain. The diverse organisms are supported by this base (giant tube worms, clams, limpets and shrimp). The vents that they are finding are small and immature.

    They're searching for these vents by following the lines of mussels, which feed on the bacteria ect. Mussels will lead to the worms and the worms will lead to the vents.

    As for their samples, they are making markers as they go. These markers are points when they collected samples. Each marker is different from the last, helping them organize their sample.

    I am assuming they'll continue to collect samples, but each sample will be different from the others in the two boxes. They've separated the living and dead samples thus far.
     
    #21 Emma, Jun 14, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 15, 2015
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  22. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Being a one-eyed octopus would be a horrible life.

    Octopuses rely on their keen eyesight to hunt and move. They have the unique ability to distinguish the polarization of light, like other cephalopods. Not sure about the octopus they came across, but octopuses also utilize color vision, which varies from species to species.

    Because he has only one working eye, his sense of body orientation in relation to his horizontal positioning would be suffering.
     
    #22 Emma, Jun 14, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 14, 2015
  23. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    deep drop-off

    [​IMG]
     
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  24. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Hercules and Argus haven't found any major hydrothermal vent activity yet. The next scheduled dive is set for the 18th. They will be pursuing more an area that has had more recent activity.

    In the mean time, they will be transitioning new crew in and out as well as picking up a NatGeo crew.
     
  25. Emma

    Emma Hey
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  26. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    Dive this evening.

    Drop time is 6:30 ET.

    An hour give or take before they reach the bottom.
     
  27. Emma

    Emma Hey
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  28. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    looking good so far
     
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  29. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    found the Tempus Fugit hydrothermal vent site
     
  30. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    those are the tube worms they were after
     
  31. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    whole lotta active venting captured by Herc
     
    #32 Emma, Jun 19, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 22, 2015
  32. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    In the final minutes of a long dive near the Galapagos Islands, Dr. Bob Ballard and the Corps of Exploration find the first active hydrothermal chimneys of the 2015 expedition amid a diverse colony of chemosynthetic organisms.
     
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  33. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    While exploring hydrothermal vents near the Galapagos, Dr. Robert Ballard and the E/V Nautilus team discover huge swaths of giant and colorful chemosynthetic tube worms.
     
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  34. soulfly

    soulfly Well-Known Member
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    :laugh: love how slapdick some of these are. Chainsaw face fish: "how big do you think he is?" "I'd say about 20 whiffle balls"
     
    #36 soulfly, Jun 23, 2015
    Last edited: Jun 23, 2015
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  35. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    They definitely keep it entertaining
     
  36. Emma

    Emma Hey
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  37. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    They are probing for bioluminescent animals as they continue their descend
     
  38. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    http://www.nautiluslive.org/live/quad

    We are here! Exploring Rosebud, a fin whale that was sunk in 2011. We will be looking for the Osadex worms that live only in whale bone in addition to other organisms in this community. 1 hour 18 min ago
     
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  39. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    A lot of organisms to view tonight

    http://www.nautiluslive.org/

    We are searching out active methane seeps, looking at organism behavior in these unique areas. This has been a great dive today, and we still have hours to go! 1 hour 1 min ago
     
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  40. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    We are diving off of Point Dume, CA at about 720 m. These are the largest methane seeps we have come across so far - over 200 m long across the seafloor! 36 min 18 sec ago
     
  41. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    One sight from last night's dive

    [​IMG]

    Anemone on the left

     
  42. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    Never ending floor of microbes feeding off methane seeps

    [​IMG]

    The crew believes they may be exploring the largest cold seep ever, previously undiscovered
     
    #45 Emma, Aug 7, 2015
    Last edited: Aug 7, 2015
  43. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    What's unique about this area is that without the surrounding clams, the ocean floor wouldn't be as vibrant in color as seen above.

    Vesicomyid clams, seen as the small white specks above, depend entirely on sulfur-oxidizing endosymbiotic bacteria for their nutriment. The microbes find home on clams' gills, in return providing nutrients to the clams as they metabolize methane and hydrogen sulfide.

    Fun fact: clams do not feed directly in these cold seep environments as they do not have a functioning mouth or digestive system.
     
  44. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    And they're doing impersonations of Admiral Ackbar It's a trap
     
  45. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    [​IMG]
     
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  46. Emma

    Emma Hey
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    We will be launching momentarily and descending to a truly unexplored area of the seafloor at Redondo Knoll, between Palos Verdes and Catalina Island. Stay tuned for adventure! 3 min 12 sec ago - See more at: http://www.nautiluslive.org/#sthash.Y9b0YV7c.dpuf